Project 3419: G. M. Musser, J. Cracraft. 2019. A New Morphological Dataset Reveals a Novel Relationship for the Adzebills of New Zealand (Aptornis) and Provides a Foundation for Total Evidence Neoavian Phylogenetics. American Museum Novitates. 2019 (3927):1.
Specimen: † Aptornis defossor (AMNH/AMNH 60)
View: rostral

Abstract

Relationships among Neoaves, a group comprising approximately 95% of all extant birds, are difficult to resolve because of multiple short internodes presumably created by a rapid evolutionary radiation around the K/Pg boundary. This difficulty has plagued both morphological and molecular studies. Compared with molecular studies with extensive taxon and character sampling, morphological datasets have largely failed to provide insight into the phenotypic evolutionary transitions of the neoavian radiation. Extinct neoavian taxa remain an understudied but critical key to resolving relationships among these problematic stem lineages and understanding evolutionary changes in structure and function. Adzebills (Aptornis), some of the most phylogenetically controversial fossil neoavians, are extinct terrestrial birds endemic to New Zealand since at least the early Miocene. Past morphological studies have placed adzebills as a sister taxon to the flightless Kagu of New Caledonia (Rhynochetos jubatus) or to the land- and waterfowl group Galloanseres. Recent molecular studies reveal the Kagu and Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) to be sister taxa, whereas adzebills have been postulated to be within Rallidae (rails, gallinules, and coots) or the sister taxon of Sarothruridae (flufftails) or Ralloidea (finfoots, flufftails, and rails). To better resolve the position of adzebills and begin constructing a fine-scale total evidence phylogenetic dataset for the base of Neoaves, we constructed a new and more comprehensive morphological dataset of 368 discrete osteological characters for 38 extant and two extinct taxa that includes extensive sampling of nearly all neoavian stem lineages. We then combined this dataset with 32 DNA sequences of the slowly evolving nuclear RAG1 and RAG2 genes. Morphological results place adzebills as the sister taxon of trumpeters (Psophia) within core Gruiformes and confirm strong support for a Kagu+Sunbittern sister group (99% bootstrap value). Results for analyses of the combined data were identical, and the adzebill+trumpeter clade was supported by a 99% Bayesian clade credibility value. Although the Kagu+Sunbittern sister group is consistent with recent molecular hypotheses, the adzebill+trumpeter group is novel.


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Article DOI: 10.1206/3927.1

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3419, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3419
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 40 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 368 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 13952
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 368
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1141
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:368/0
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MorphoBank Project 3419

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    Grace Musser
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/03/19
    40110368010013952
    (13952, 0, 0)
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    Joel Cracraft
    Full membership
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26030' (40 Taxa)

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    [1] Crypturellus undulatus undulatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1135735700002
    [2] Tinamus solitarius
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1135735700002
    [3] Lophura bulweri
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    836036000002
    [4] Gallus varius
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    636236200002
    [5] Gallus gallus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    636236200002
    [6] Gavia immer
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    736136100002
    [7] Pygoscelis antarcticus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1535335300002
    [8] Spheniscus humboldti
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1435435400002
    [9] Podiceps cristatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [10] Podiceps grisegena
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [11] Caprimulgus affinis griseatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1535335300002
    [12] Eurostopodus argus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1535335300002
    [13] Eudromias ruficollis
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    736136100002
    [14] Burhinus bistriatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    636236200002
    [15] Charadrius hiaticula semipalmatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    836036000002
    [16] Chionis alba
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1035835800002
    [17] Opisthocomus hoazin
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    935935900002
    [18] Phaethon aethereus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    836036000002
    [19] Psophia obscura
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [20] Aramus guarana
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1035835800002
    [21] Balearica regulorum
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    935935900002
    [22] Grus japonensis
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    935935900002
    [23] Podica senegalensis
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    18917917900002
    [24] Sarothrura lugens
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    6030830800002
    [25] Mentocrex kioloides
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    736136100002
    [26] Himantornis haematopus whitesidei
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [27] Gallirallus sp.
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [28] Canirallus oceleus batesi
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    636236200002
    [29] Aramides cajanea
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    935935900002
    [30] Rallus elegans
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [31] Gallinula chloropus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [32] Fulica cornuta
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    436436400002
    [33] Porphyrio hochstetteri
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1335535500002
    [34] Eurypyga helias
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    636236200002
    [35] Rhynochetos jubatus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    1335535500002
    [36] † Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi
    Last Modified in 05/24/19
    15821021000002
    [37] † Aptornis defossor
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    7029829800002
    [38] Cathartes burrovianus
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    536336300002
    [39] Cariama cristata
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    736136100002
    [40] Leptosomus discolor
    Last Modified in 04/20/19
    236636600002


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