Project 3448: C. Weirauch, R. T. Schuh, G. Cassis, W. C. Wheeler. 2019. Revisiting habitat and lifestyle transitions in Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): insights from a combined morphological and molecular phylogeny. Cladistics. 35 (1):67-105.
Specimen: Triatoma protracta (unvouchered)
View: dorsal

Abstract

Heteroptera, the true bugs, are part of the largest clade of non‐holometabolous insects, the Hemiptera, and include > 42 000 described species in about 90 families. Despite progress in resolving phylogenetic relationships between and within infraorders since the first combined morphological and molecular analysis published in 1993 (29 taxa, 669 bp, 31 morphological characters), recent hypotheses have relied entirely on molecular data. Weakly supported nodes along the backbone of Heteroptera made these published phylogenies unsuitable for investigations into the evolution of habitats and lifestyles across true bugs. Here we present the first combined morphological and molecular analyses of Heteroptera since 1993, using 135 taxa in 60 families, 4018 aligned bp of ribosomal DNA and 81 morphological characters, and various analytical approaches. The sister‐group relationship of the predominantly aquatic Nepomorpha with all remaining Heteroptera is supported in all analyses, and a clade formed by Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha and Gerromorpha in some. All analyses recover Leptopodomorpha + (Cimicomorpha + Pentatomomorpha), mostly with high support. Parsimony‐ and likelihood‐based ancestral state reconstructions of habitats and lifestyles on the combined likelihood phylogeny provide new insights into the evolution of true bugs. The results indicate that aquatic and semi‐aquatic true bugs invaded these habitats three times independently from terrestrial habitats in contrast to a recent hypothesis. They further suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Heteroptera was predacious, and that the two large predominantly phytophagous clades (Trichophora and Miroidea) are likely to have derived independently from predatory ancestors. We conclude that by combining morphological and molecular data and employing various analytical methods our analyses have converged on a relatively well‐supported hypothesis of heteropteran infraordinal relationships that now requires further testing using phylogenomic and more extensive morphological datasets.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/cla.12233

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3448, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3448
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 135 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 81 Characters


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Total scored cells: 10796
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 81
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 219
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:80/1
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MorphoBank Project 3448

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    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Tanya Berardini
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/19/19
    13511810010796
    (10504, 0, 292)
    000
    Gerasimos Cassis
    Full membership
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    Randall Schuh
    Full membership
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    Christiane Weirauch
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    (0, 0, 0)
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    Ward Wheeler
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25988' (135 Taxa)

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    [1] Aeneolamia contigua
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [2] Locris rubra
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [3] Tropidocephala sp
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [4] Amerzanna peruana
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0787803005
    [5] Putoniessa rivularis
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [6] Cicadatra atra
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [7] Hackeriella veitchi
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    2727207005
    [8] Peloridium hammonniorum
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    2727207005
    [9] Aenictopecheidae sp
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    2767603005
    [10] Systelloderes sp
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    1777703005
    [11] Enicocephalinae sp
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    2767603005
    [12] Enicocephalinae nig 137
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    2767603005
    [13] Enicocephalus sp cf sturmi ecu 150
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    2767603005
    [14] Ceratocombus australiensis
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    3767602005
    [15] Ceratocombus vagans 247
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    3767602005
    [16] Cryptostemma sp
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    3777701005
    [17] Cryptostemma sp peru 251
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    3777701005
    [18] Hypselosoma hickmani
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    3777701005
    [19] Pateena polymitarior
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    3777701005
    [20] Voragocoris schuhi 254
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    3777701005
    [21] Chinannus sp cr 80
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    3777701005
    [22] Ptenidiophyes mirabilis cr 89
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    3757503005
    [23] Mesovelia mulsanti
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    [24] Macrovelia horni
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    7717103005
    [25] Microvelia sp
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    0777704005
    [26] Aquarius remigis
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    0777704005
    [27] Abedus indentatus
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    [28] Ranatra sp
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    [29] Nerthra adspersa
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    [30] Megochterus occidentalis
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    [31] Corixidae sp
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    0777704005
    [32] Usingerina moapensis
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    0777704005
    [33] Hydrotrephes sp
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    0777704005
    [34] Notonectidae sp peru
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0777704005
    [35] Pleidae sp peru
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    0777704005
    [36] Salda sp
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    0808001005
    [37] Saldula brevicornis
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    0808001005
    [38] Valleriola sp
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    [39] Leotichius sp
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    4767601005
    [40] Aphelonotus fraterculus 1586
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    7747400005
    [41] Camarochilus 2720
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    [42] Phymata pacifica
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    [43] Macrocephalus barberi
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    [44] Tapeinus sp
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    [45] Zelurus sp
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    [46] Triatoma protracta
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
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    [47] Apiomerus lanipes
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    0767605005
    [48] Rhynocoris segmentarius
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    [49] Stenopoda sp
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    [50] Racelda sp
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    [51] Stenolemoides arizonensis
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    0787803005
    [52] Loricula elegantula
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    [53] Joppeicus paradoxus
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    [54] Himacerus apterus
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    [55] Nabis ferus
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    [56] Nabis apicalis
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    [57] Prostemma hilgendorfii
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    [58] Lasiochilus japonicus
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    [59] Lasiochilus luceonotatus
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    [60] Lipokophila eberhardi
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    7737301005
    [61] Lyctocoris beneficus
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    [62] Anthocoris confusus
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    0808001005
    [63] Orius horvathi
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    [64] Tetraphleps aterrimus
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    0808001005
    [65] Cimex lectularius
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    [66] Curalium cronini
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    [67] Baclozygum brachypterum
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    4757502005
    [68] Thaumastocorinae thai 2846
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    [69] Discocoris drakei
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    4757502005
    [70] Xylastodoris luteolus
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    4757502005
    [71] Corythucha sp
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    [72] Diplocysta sp
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    [73] Eteoneus angulatus
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    [74] Myiomma sp
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    [75] Monalocoris americanus
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    [76] Campyloneura virgula
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    [77] Dicyphus pallidicornis
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
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    [78] Tupiocoris sp
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    [79] Phallospinophylus setosus
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
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    [80] Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
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    [81] Rhinacloa forticornis
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    [82] Semium hirtum
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    [83] Pilophorus discretus
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    [84] Lopidea bullata
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    [85] Pseudopsallus angularis
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    [86] Capsus ater
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    [87] Cyphopelta modesta
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    [88] Irbisia brachycera
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
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    [89] Lygus lineolaris
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0787803005
    [90] Trigonotylus sp
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    [91] Deraeocoris brevis
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    [92] Calisius hackeri
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    1787802005
    [93] Dysodius sp
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    1787802005
    [94] Isodermus planus
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    1787802005
    [95] Mezira sayi
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    [96] Anischys luteovarius
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0808001005
    [97] Stauralia chloracantha
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0808001005
    [98] Lestonia haustorifera
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    [99] Parastrachia japonensis
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    0808001005
    [100] Cydninae sp 3
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    [101] Brochymena sp
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    [102] Oechalia schellenbergii
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    0808001005
    [103] Poecilometis sp
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    [104] Tholosanus sp
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    0808001005
    [105] Austrotichus rugosus
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    [106] Choerocoris variegatus
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
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    [107] Coleotichus costatus
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    [108] Thaumastella namaquensis
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    [109] Urochela luteovaria
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    [110] Urostylis westwoodi
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    [111] Henicocoris monteithi
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    1787802005
    [112] Trisecus sp
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    0797902005
    [113] Kleidocerys sp
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    0808001005
    [114] Lygaeus equestris
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    0808001005
    [115] Oncopeltus fasciatus
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    0808001005
    [116] Malcus elongatus
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    0808001005
    [117] Pachygrontha sp
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    0808001005
    [118] Mcateella sp
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    0808001005
    [119] Neoneides muticus
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    0808001005
    [120] Pronotacantha annulata
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    [121] Ischnodemus sp
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    0808001005
    [122] Cymus sp
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    [123] Germalus sp
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    0808001005
    [124] Remaudiereana inornata
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    [125] Laryngodus cervantes
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    [126] Leptocorisa acuta
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    [127] Cletus sp
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    [128] Aulacosternum nigrorubrum
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    [129] Narnia femorata
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    0808001005
    [130] Maevius indecorus
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    [131] Harmostes sp
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    0808001005
    [132] Dysdercus fuscomaculatus
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    [133] Probergrothius sexpunctatus
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    [134] Largus rufipennis
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0797902005
    [135] Physopelta melanoptera
    Last Modified in 04/04/19
    0797902005


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    Project overview119
    Media views146Media search (125 views); M662094 (21 views);
    Matrix views85Morphological matrix used for the phylogenetic analyses NEXUS file. (19 views); Matrix landing page (66 views);
    Taxon list461
    Bibliography30
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    Specimen list62
    Documents list1




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    Total downloads from project17
    Project downloads13
    Matrix downloads4Morphological matrix used for the phylogenetic analyses NEXUS file. (4 downloads);