Project 3456: G. Musser, D. T. Ksepka, D. J. Field. 2019. New Material of Paleocene-Eocene Pellornis (Aves: Gruiformes) Clarifies the Pattern and Timing of the Extant Gruiform Radiation. Diversity. 11 (7):102.
Specimen: † Pellornis mikkelseni (:MGUH 29278)
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Abstract

Pellornis mikkelseni is an early gruiform from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. At approximately 54 million years old, it is among the earliest clear records of the Gruiformes. The holotype specimen, and only material thus far recognised, was originally considered to comprise a partial postcranial skeleton. However, additional mechanical preparation of the nodule containing the holotype revealed that the skeleton is nearly complete and includes a well-preserved skull. In addition to extracting new information from the holotype, we identify and describe two additional specimens of P. mikkelseni which reveal further morphological details of the skeleton. Together, these specimens show that P. mikkelseni possessed a schizorhinal skull and shared many features with the well-known Paleogene Messelornithidae (“Messel rails”). To reassess the phylogenetic position of P. mikkelseni, we modified an existing morphological dataset by adding 20 characters, four extant gruiform taxa, six extinct gruiform taxa, and novel scorings based on the holotype and referred specimens. Phylogenetic analyses recover a clade containing P. mikkelseni, Messelornis, Songzia and crown Ralloidea, supporting P. mikkelseni as a crown gruiform. The phylogenetic position of P. mikkelseni illustrates that some recent divergence time analyses have underestimated the age of crown Gruiformes. Our results suggest a Paleocene origin for this important clade, bolstering evidence for a rapid early radiation of Neoaves following the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.


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Article DOI: 10.3390/d11070102

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3456, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3456
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 36 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 102 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 4 MB

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Total scored cells: 3104
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 102
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 218
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:97/5
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MorphoBank Project 3456

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    Grace Musser
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/28/19
    3611010200003104
    (3042, 0, 62)
    01000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26124' (36 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Tinamus solitarius
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    2999901001
    [2] Leipoa ocellata
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    5979700001
    [3] Penelope supercilliaris
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [4] Coturnix coturnix
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [5] Chauna torquata
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    110110100001
    [6] Anas sibilatrix
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [7] Mergus serrator
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [8] Cariama cristata
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [9] Larus smithsonianus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [10] Recurvirostra avosetta
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [11] Charadrius vociferous
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [12] Jacana jacana
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [13] Thinocorus rumicivorus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    4989800001
    [14] Sterocorarius longicaudus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [15] Burhinus superciliaris
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    110110100001
    [16] Sarothrura pulchra
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [17] Heliornis fulica
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [18] Himantornis haematopus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    4989800001
    [19] Gallinula chloropus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    010210200001
    [20] Rallus longirostris
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [21] Porphyrio flavirostris
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    010210200001
    [22] † Messelornis cristata
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    39636300001
    [23] † Messelornis nearctica
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    69333300001
    [24] † Pellornis mikkelseni
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    54454503001
    [25] † Songzia acutunguis
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    64383800001
    [26] Psophia crepitans
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    4999800001
    [27] † Parvigrus pohli
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    103434058001
    [28] Grus grus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [29] Balearica pavonina
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210010000001
    [30] Aramus guarauna
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    3999900001
    [31] Eurypyga helias
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    210110000001
    [32] Otis tarda
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    110110100001
    [33] Rhynochetos jubatus
    Last Modified in 06/26/19
    5979700001
    [34] † Australlus gagensis
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    948800001
    [35] † Australlus disneyi
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    90121200001
    [36] † Itardiornis hessae
    Last Modified in 06/28/19
    83191900001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views907
    Project overview151
    Matrix views92Matrix landing page (67 views); Pellornis 2019 Matrix Musser Ksepka Field (25 views);
    Taxon list373
    Media views144Media search (130 views); M665158 (14 views);
    Bibliography26
    Views for media list47
    Specimen list74




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project25
    Matrix downloads10Pellornis 2019 Matrix Musser Ksepka Field (10 downloads);
    Project downloads14
    Media downloads1M665158 (1 download);