Project 348: R. Vasconcelos, A. Perera, P. Geniez, D. J. Harris, S. Carranza. 2012. An integrative taxonomic revision of the Tarentola geckos (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) of the Cape Verde Islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 164:328–360.
Specimen: Tarentola fogoensis Vasconcelos, Perera, Geniez, Salvador & Harris, 2011 (MNHN/2011:0203)

Abstract

Recent phylogeographical analyses using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences indicate that the Tarentola geckos from the Cape Verde archipelago originated from a propagule that dispersed from the Canary Islands approximately 7.7 Mya and that underwent a fast evolutionary radiation. Molecular analyses carried out to date clearly show some incongruences with the current taxonomy of Tarentola from the Cape Verde Islands, with some species being paraphyletic or polyphyletic, and several independently evolving lineages needing formal taxonomic recognition. The aim of this study was to clarify the systematics of this group to unravel its taxonomy by applying an integrative approach based on information from three independent sources: mtDNA, nuclear genes, and morphology. As a result of this taxonomic revision, two novel species for the islands of S. Nicolau and Fogo are described and eight subspecies are upgraded to species level. Moreover, an identification key for the genus Tarentola from the Cape Verde archipelago is presented. This study reconciles taxonomy and phylogeny in this group, provides a better understanding of diversity patterns, new insights on evolutionary hypotheses, and supports the basic framework for the future management and conservation of this unique reptile radiation.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P348, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P348
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  • 19 Specimens
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    Authors' Institutions

    • Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)

    • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (Cefe)

    • Universidade do Porto (CIBIO included)

    • Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Barcelona



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    Salvador Carranza
    Project Administrator
    131920512049
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    0000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    0000
    Ana Perera
    Full membership
    0000
    Raquel Vasconcelos
    Full membership
    0000


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M43128 (13 views); M43633 (5 views); M43640 (7 views); M43159 (3 views); M44720 (3 views); M43144 (13 views); M44410 (3 views); M43768 (6 views); M44387 (4 views); M43627 (4 views); M55900 (11 views); M45866 (2 views); M45815 (2 views); M45913 (2 views); M55916 (10 views); M44424 (3 views); M44557 (2 views); M45881 (3 views); M44752 (3 views); M43523 (4 views); M44887 (5 views); M43472 (12 views); M44517 (3 views); M44332 (2 views); M43617 (4 views); M43152 (5 views); M43208 (5 views); M44379 (5 views); M43463 (3 views); M43524 (9 views); M44727 (3 views); M44755 (3 views); M43609 (5 views); M43478 (9 views); M43594 (4 views); M44907 (6 views); M44982 (3 views); M45685 (3 views); M45800 (2 views); M43104 (13 views); M45963 (10 views); M45696 (4 views); M43595 (3 views); M44394 (3 views); M43155 (8 views); M44510 (7 views); M45700 (2 views); M44805 (9 views); M43085 (13 views); M44779 (7 views); M45835 (2 views); M43137 (12 views); M44605 (5 views); M43619 (6 views); M55736 (15 views); M44954 (5 views); M43509 (9 views); M43166 (3 views); M45704 (3 views); M44967 (5 views); M44377 (3 views); M43186 (5 views); M44578 (7 views); M44405 (4 views); M44931 (7 views); M44415 (6 views); M44618 (5 views); M45904 (2 views); M43769 (6 views); M45654 (2 views); M44922 (5 views); M44662 (3 views); M44742 (4 views); M44708 (4 views); M44836 (9 views); M44550 (6 views); M46051 (12 views); M46053 (9 views); M46048 (8 views); M46071 (10 views); M46026 (9 views); M45845 (6 views); M46068 (10 views); M46082 (11 views); M46091 (8 views); M46069 (10 views); M46077 (13 views); M55646 (13 views); M46047 (12 views); M46015 (7 views); M46016 (8 views); M46073 (10 views); M46038 (9 views); M46029 (8 views); M46087 (10 views); M46079 (15 views); M46052 (8 views); M46103 (10 views); M46054 (8 views); M46063 (8 views); M46061 (11 views); M46033 (7 views); M46019 (9 views); M44497 (4 views); M46028 (9 views); M44494 (3 views); M46023 (9 views); M46035 (11 views); M46055 (8 views); M44801 (9 views); M44670 (3 views); M44669 (3 views); M44706 (3 views); M46104 (8 views); M46057 (9 views); M46044 (9 views); M55914 (8 views); M44560 (3 views); M44960 (7 views); M55669 (14 views); M44390 (4 views); M55754 (17 views); M55888 (9 views); M43082 (14 views); M55715 (15 views); M44327 (17 views); M44266 (3 views); M44739 (3 views); M45889 (3 views); M45837 (4 views); M43139 (14 views); M44534 (4 views); M55674 (15 views); M55901 (8 views); M55891 (13 views); M43483 (5 views); M45668 (2 views); M45988 (4 views); M44828 (7 views); M45813 (3 views); M55668 (15 views); M43666 (8 views); M43207 (4 views); M46005 (5 views); M43084 (24 views); M43106 (10 views); M43555 (11 views); M45917 (3 views); M55696 (13 views); M43096 (9 views); M45662 (4 views); M44441 (3 views); M44604 (3 views); M43701 (6 views); M44940 (5 views); M45773 (2 views); M45699 (7 views); M45994 (5 views); M45001 (7 views); M44488 (4 views); M45844 (4 views); M44322 (4 views); M44325 (3 views); M44551 (3 views); M43136 (28 views); M43138 (15 views); M43501 (4 views); M45819 (4 views); M44792 (7 views); M45915 (3 views); M44524 (4 views); M43751 (7 views); M44802 (11 views); M43653 (10 views); M43153 (4 views); M43484 (3 views); M43626 (9 views); M43756 (9 views); M44777 (7 views); M44640 (3 views); M44804 (7 views); M44600 (4 views); M44992 (3 views); M44570 (4 views); M45735 (3 views); M45730 (2 views); M43652 (9 views); M45744 (3 views); M44685 (3 views); M44664 (4 views); M44682 (3 views); M45817 (3 views); M45708 (5 views); M44286 (5 views); M44980 (4 views); M44567 (6 views); M44679 (3 views); M45789 (4 views); M44680 (5 views); M45786 (6 views); M44741 (4 views); M44730 (3 views); M45784 (3 views); M44973 (4 views); M44343 (5 views); M44536 (3 views); M45661 (3 views); M44528 (2 views); M45723 (3 views); M44270 (5 views); M44444 (4 views); M44366 (3 views); M45770 (3 views); M45964 (4 views); M43565 (4 views); M44884 (6 views); M44808 (5 views); M44630 (4 views); M44898 (4 views); M43630 (9 views); M44352 (3 views); M44346 (3 views); M44717 (11 views); M44713 (3 views); M44381 (3 views); M44562 (3 views); M44318 (3 views); M44353 (3 views); M43731 (27 views); M45705 (4 views); M43694 (5 views); M44303 (3 views); M44760 (3 views); M44936 (6 views); M44274 (3 views); M44677 (3 views); M44864 (10 views); M43634 (8 views); M45673 (2 views); M43686 (7 views); M44843 (10 views); M44642 (4 views); M45669 (8 views); M45759 (7 views); M44446 (4 views); M45785 (2 views); M55729 (16 views); M45979 (3 views); M44917 (6 views); M44881 (7 views); M44666 (4 views); M44818 (8 views); M44840 (6 views); M43729 (10 views); M45862 (3 views); M45891 (3 views); M46046 (7 views); M45678 (4 views); M44312 (3 views); M44780 (11 views); M44330 (4 views); M44949 (8 views); M44342 (4 views); M45691 (6 views); M44719 (3 views); M44663 (4 views); M44683 (3 views); M44704 (4 views); M44765 (4 views); M45982 (3 views); M45908 (2 views); M45921 (3 views); M43679 (6 views); M44773 (5 views); M43779 (13 views); M44902 (8 views); M44919 (8 views); M44593 (3 views); M44611 (4 views); M43551 (9 views); M44703 (5 views); M44525 (2 views); M45983 (5 views); M55720 (26 views); M43486 (5 views); M55721 (19 views); M45821 (4 views); M44307 (4 views); M45728 (3 views); M45769 (5 views); M44886 (7 views); M44911 (6 views); M44769 (8 views); M45882 (3 views); M43728 (7 views); M44956 (9 views); M44236 (7 views); M44279 (3 views); M44676 (3 views); M43695 (6 views); M44653 (4 views); M43771 (5 views); M45804 (3 views); M44331 (5 views); M44909 (9 views); M43623 (6 views); M44809 (10 views); M44858 (6 views); M45775 (3 views); M45875 (3 views); M44819 (9 views); M45887 (3 views); M44744 (4 views); M45878 (3 views); M44710 (4 views); M44251 (3 views); M45740 (3 views); M44649 (5 views); M44259 (2 views); M44695 (4 views); M44245 (10 views); M44304 (3 views); M44297 (4 views); M43743 (11 views); M44916 (5 views); M45843 (3 views); M45951 (3 views); M44796 (8 views); M44284 (2 views); M44721 (3 views); M44715 (3 views); M43739 (7 views); M43698 (7 views); M43692 (6 views); M43772 (8 views); M43754 (7 views); M45715 (2 views); M45825 (1 view); M45683 (3 views); M44584 (3 views); M45884 (4 views); M44767 (6 views); M45727 (3 views); M45689 (3 views); M44628 (3 views); M55883 (9 views); M55712 (23 views); M55687 (9 views); M45975 (3 views); M44338 (3 views); M55759 (5 views); M43690 (5 views); M45826 (3 views); M44527 (3 views); M44689 (4 views); M45987 (5 views); M45980 (3 views); M45698 (10 views); M55714 (18 views); M45966 (4 views); M45765 (3 views); M44272 (3 views); M55664 (17 views); M44482 (4 views); M45860 (4 views); M44492 (3 views); M45952 (3 views); M43498 (4 views); M44647 (3 views); M44890 (8 views); M44535 (3 views); M45926 (3 views); M44859 (7 views); M44965 (7 views); M44947 (8 views); M43675 (5 views); M43713 (7 views); M43650 (9 views); M45746 (3 views); M55691 (13 views); M55658 (14 views); M44705 (4 views); M44547 (3 views); M45767 (3 views); M44555 (4 views); M45803 (4 views); M45864 (3 views); M43569 (6 views); M43615 (7 views); M43602 (4 views); M43581 (10 views); M43576 (9 views); M44976 (7 views); M44875 (8 views); M44848 (6 views); M45918 (5 views); M45760 (3 views); M45847 (2 views); M44999 (6 views); M44953 (8 views); M45726 (3 views); M55678 (17 views); M43777 (11 views); M43746 (9 views); M45795 (3 views); M44489 (3 views); M43760 (7 views); M44537 (3 views); M43766 (9 views); M44771 (9 views); M45752 (3 views); M44651 (4 views); M43557 (9 views); M45660 (6 views); M43517 (12 views); M44287 (3 views); M44641 (5 views); M45771 (3 views); M43525 (5 views); M44583 (3 views); M44654 (3 views); M43780 (7 views); M43616 (6 views); M43573 (7 views); M43606 (9 views); M44589 (2 views); M44722 (4 views); M43597 (9 views); M43577 (6 views); M43568 (16 views); M43580 (14 views); M44857 (11 views); M43520 (4 views); M44673 (3 views); M43636 (11 views); M43596 (4 views); M43631 (6 views); M44571 (3 views); M43599 (5 views); M45748 (3 views); M45922 (4 views); M44738 (4 views); M44613 (4 views); M43753 (7 views); M43660 (5 views); M44945 (7 views); M43579 (9 views); M46003 (5 views); M44504 (2 views); M45808 (3 views); M45923 (4 views); M44428 (3 views); M43733 (10 views); M45764 (5 views); M45984 (3 views); M44435 (3 views); M43681 (5 views); M43749 (9 views); M43709 (8 views); M44684 (4 views); M44295 (3 views); M43610 (4 views); M43637 (4 views); M44981 (4 views); M45909 (3 views); M43620 (5 views); M43612 (6 views); M44756 (4 views); M44852 (8 views); M45959 (3 views); M44822 (8 views); M44450 (3 views); M44523 (6 views); M43740 (5 views); M43647 (6 views); M43685 (6 views); M44241 (6 views); M44239 (10 views); M44271 (2 views); M44244 (7 views); M43668 (13 views); M43702 (10 views); M43664 (13 views); M43657 (5 views); M43759 (7 views); M44291 (3 views); M43482 (16 views); M55742 (12 views); M45687 (3 views); M45947 (4 views); M45850 (3 views); M55730 (15 views); M44841 (7 views); M43658 (6 views); M44740 (3 views); M44362 (3 views); M46043 (7 views); M43747 (5 views); M43507 (4 views); M43174 (3 views); M45706 (3 views); M43142 (15 views); M43493 (3 views); M43563 (6 views); M44975 (7 views); M45823 (4 views); M45830 (3 views); M45968 (3 views); M55692 (19 views); M55723 (15 views); M44559 (3 views); M44838 (11 views); M45946 (3 views); M45965 (3 views); M45899 (6 views); M44844 (11 views); M44328 (4 views); M45973 (3 views); M45914 (4 views); M45734 (2 views); M45936 (5 views); M44961 (7 views); M44941 (8 views); M45937 (3 views); M44997 (6 views); M55743 (15 views); M44696 (3 views); M43635 (6 views); M44296 (4 views); M44900 (6 views); M45970 (4 views); M44619 (3 views); M45985 (3 views); M44563 (3 views); M44445 (3 views); M45940 (3 views); M44305 (2 views); M55662 (15 views); M46025 (8 views); M43750 (6 views); M43628 (4 views); M45867 (4 views); M45806 (4 views); M43522 (7 views); M45811 (2 views); M43774 (8 views); M44724 (3 views); M44300 (3 views); M44820 (6 views); M43550 (6 views); M43764 (19 views); M44290 (3 views); M43543 (14 views); M43516 (5 views); M45758 (3 views); M44943 (6 views); M44736 (3 views); M44255 (7 views); M44306 (2 views); M44862 (6 views); M45834 (4 views); M44799 (8 views); M44709 (3 views); M44897 (7 views); M44260 (4 views); M44246 (9 views); M44478 (2 views); M44944 (9 views); M45986 (5 views); M45920 (4 views); M44854 (6 views); M43649 (7 views); M45842 (3 views); M43191 (4 views); M45938 (3 views); M44485 (2 views); M44920 (10 views); M44638 (2 views); M43667 (14 views); M44810 (7 views); M44868 (6 views); M45009 (3 views); M43076 (8 views); M43562 (5 views); M55653 (14 views); M43146 (13 views); M44388 (3 views); M55667 (17 views); M45849 (1 view); M45840 (1 view); M44539 (2 views); M45755 (2 views); M44815 (7 views); M43582 (6 views); M46007 (2 views); M44596 (2 views); M43538 (3 views); M43622 (4 views); M44743 (3 views); M45872 (1 view); M44582 (2 views); M43661 (8 views); M43566 (4 views); M43110 (10 views); M45774 (2 views); M45733 (2 views); M44784 (6 views); M44757 (2 views); M44253 (3 views); M45935 (9 views); M45686 (4 views); M43148 (12 views); M44277 (2 views); M44419 (3 views); M43745 (9 views); M44459 (2 views); M45992 (2 views); M44778 (7 views); M45766 (2 views); M43671 (12 views); M44726 (6 views); M43489 (5 views); M43726 (10 views); M44812 (8 views); M44795 (7 views); M44262 (2 views); M45851 (1 view); M45960 (2 views); M45711 (3 views); M55689 (23 views); M44725 (3 views); M43742 (10 views); M44321 (5 views); M43656 (7 views); M44429 (11 views); M43688 (4 views); M43112 (14 views); M44601 (2 views); M43718 (5 views); M45901 (1 view); M44732 (2 views); M44314 (2 views); M45682 (5 views); M43678 (6 views); M43689 (16 views); M43663 (8 views); M43697 (4 views); M43618 (6 views); M43632 (6 views); M43659 (6 views); M43669 (7 views); M43651 (4 views); M45003 (5 views); M44480 (2 views); M45738 (3 views); M44574 (2 views); M45717 (4 views); M44529 (2 views); M44545 (2 views); M44490 (2 views); M45731 (2 views); M44516 (2 views); M44821 (13 views); M44692 (2 views); M44543 (4 views); M44928 (7 views); M44558 (2 views); M45944 (6 views); M45788 (2 views); M44344 (2 views); M44790 (5 views); M44612 (2 views); M55716 (19 views); M44845 (8 views); M44957 (6 views); M44783 (6 views); M44830 (5 views); M44856 (6 views); M44549 (2 views); M44554 (2 views); M44358 (4 views); M44933 (7 views); M43642 (4 views); M44761 (2 views); M44962 (6 views); M43763 (4 views); M44248 (2 views); M44963 (6 views); M45820 (1 view); M44995 (4 views); M45763 (4 views); M44908 (7 views); M44798 (5 views); M43707 (7 views); M44416 (3 views); M44968 (4 views); M44268 (3 views); M44354 (3 views); M44475 (2 views); M45929 (10 views); M43177 (13 views); M45693 (3 views); M44770 (7 views); M46011 (4 views); M55673 (16 views); M44910 (4 views); M44507 (5 views); M44681 (2 views); M45745 (2 views); M44471 (2 views); M44789 (5 views); M44766 (6 views); M44762 (3 views); M45719 (3 views); M45674 (4 views); M43179 (4 views); M44811 (8 views); M43109 (9 views); M44577 (3 views); M43703 (6 views); M43734 (6 views); M55686 (13 views); M45818 (2 views); M44915 (7 views); M45722 (2 views); M44423 (3 views); M44652 (2 views); M44688 (3 views); M44834 (5 views); M43150 (13 views); M43160 (28 views); M43215 (9 views); M43117 (16 views); M43570 (7 views); M43589 (6 views); M43572 (6 views); M43539 (4 views); M43532 (10 views); M43591 (18 views); M43578 (6 views); M43638 (6 views); M43621 (21 views); M43645 (11 views); M43518 (16 views); M45797 (2 views); M43714 (12 views); M45657 (6 views); M44851 (10 views); M44787 (6 views); M43741 (11 views); M45831 (1 view); M44929 (11 views); M45659 (3 views); M44694 (2 views); M45802 (2 views); M44418 (4 views); M44837 (5 views); M44827 (6 views); M44576 (2 views); M44702 (2 views); M44631 (2 views); M43715 (9 views); M44616 (2 views); M44675 (2 views); M45927 (2 views); M43505 (3 views); M44658 (3 views); M45791 (2 views); M44800 (4 views); M44899 (5 views); M44384 (4 views); M44375 (3 views); M43738 (7 views); M44357 (3 views); M43682 (4 views); M44833 (6 views); M45751 (2 views); M45739 (2 views); M44826 (5 views); M43508 (3 views); M44734 (2 views); M45967 (3 views); M44893 (7 views); M45753 (2 views); M55685 (18 views); M45978 (2 views); M43720 (11 views); M44942 (7 views); M44853 (6 views); M45949 (2 views); M45879 (1 view); M44731 (2 views); M45839 (1 view); M44879 (8 views); M44807 (10 views); M55905 (7 views); M44823 (8 views); M44832 (4 views); M44788 (7 views); M44591 (3 views); M45675 (4 views); M44367 (4 views); M55710 (16 views); M46013 (3 views); M45870 (1 view); M43598 (3 views); M44420 (3 views); M44656 (2 views); M44538 (3 views); M44614 (2 views); M43629 (8 views); M43696 (4 views); M44522 (3 views); M44552 (3 views); M44456 (2 views); M44479 (4 views); M44531 (2 views); M44491 (2 views); M44460 (3 views); M55652 (16 views); M44457 (2 views); M45876 (1 view); M44678 (2 views); M44502 (2 views); M44964 (6 views); M44633 (3 views); M45756 (2 views); M45757 (2 views); M45736 (2 views); M44365 (3 views); M45855 (2 views); M44393 (3 views); M45896 (1 view); M45903 (2 views); M44749 (2 views); M44532 (2 views); M44572 (2 views); M55726 (15 views); M44776 (7 views); M43548 (3 views); M44690 (2 views); M43776 (6 views); M44505 (2 views); M45729 (2 views); M44495 (3 views); M55733 (12 views); M45742 (2 views); M44427 (3 views); M44993 (5 views); M44425 (3 views); M44432 (5 views); M44462 (2 views); M45812 (2 views); M44627 (2 views); M44923 (6 views); M44395 (3 views); M44707 (2 views); M44498 (2 views); M44546 (2 views); M45911 (1 view); M44978 (2 views); M43721 (10 views); M44983 (3 views); M44437 (3 views); M44969 (8 views); M44235 (7 views); M44880 (8 views); M44515 (2 views); M44759 (2 views); M44865 (6 views); M45714 (2 views); M44566 (3 views); M45828 (1 view); M44644 (4 views); M44863 (6 views); M43699 (5 views); M44794 (5 views); M44439 (3 views); M45007 (12 views); M43762 (6 views); M45912 (1 view); M44650 (2 views); M44764 (2 views); M44603 (3 views); M44597 (2 views); M44984 (3 views); M44399 (3 views); M44602 (2 views); M45737 (2 views); M44889 (4 views); M44512 (2 views); M44793 (14 views); M44421 (3 views); M44417 (3 views); M44955 (5 views); M44753 (2 views); M44308 (2 views); M44932 (5 views); M44655 (2 views); M55734 (11 views); M45953 (3 views); M44903 (6 views); M44648 (3 views); M43716 (6 views); M55694 (10 views); M55707 (11 views); M55704 (13 views); M55732 (9 views); M44882 (7 views); M44747 (2 views); M44754 (2 views); M55722 (12 views); M44541 (2 views); M44447 (3 views); M45776 (2 views); M44499 (3 views); M55725 (13 views); M44607 (2 views); M44758 (3 views); M44883 (5 views); M45724 (2 views); M45925 (3 views); M44458 (3 views); M45012 (1 view); M44906 (5 views); M45976 (2 views); M45958 (3 views); M44646 (3 views); M44935 (6 views); M45777 (2 views); M44876 (7 views); M44952 (5 views); M44391 (4 views); M44892 (4 views); M44768 (5 views); M44829 (5 views); M44635 (2 views); M44586 (2 views); M44406 (4 views); M44846 (7 views); M45809 (2 views); M44636 (3 views); M44959 (6 views); M44626 (3 views); M44693 (2 views); M44835 (7 views); M44617 (3 views); M44860 (4 views); M45948 (3 views); M44484 (3 views); M44660 (2 views); M44530 (3 views); M55718 (14 views); M44938 (8 views); M45824 (1 view); M44581 (3 views); M44659 (3 views); M44950 (7 views); M44599 (3 views); M43722 (6 views); M45670 (1 view); M44610 (3 views); M44620 (4 views); M43704 (14 views); M44839 (5 views); M45680 (2 views); M44389 (3 views); M44608 (2 views); M44918 (8 views); M44436 (4 views); M44455 (2 views); M45000 (1 view); M55672 (19 views); M44674 (2 views); M44668 (4 views); M43169 (3 views); M45969 (2 views); M44370 (4 views); M44687 (2 views); M43705 (5 views); M44723 (4 views); M45934 (3 views); M43497 (3 views); M43219 (3 views); M43475 (3 views); M43185 (3 views); M43154 (3 views); M45892 (1 view); M45655 (1 view); M44874 (9 views); M44966 (4 views); M43778 (7 views); M44951 (6 views); M44237 (5 views); M44309 (2 views); M44339 (1 view); M44288 (1 view); M44299 (1 view); M44283 (1 view); M44317 (1 view); M44264 (1 view); M44348 (2 views); M44258 (1 view); M44347 (1 view); M44326 (1 view); M44298 (1 view); M44276 (3 views); M44267 (1 view); M44256 (1 view); M44341 (1 view); M44269 (1 view); M44320 (1 view); M44263 (1 view); M44333 (1 view); M43099 (11 views); M43593 (2 views); M44667 (2 views); M43554 (2 views); M43521 (2 views); M45772 (3 views); M45768 (2 views); M44996 (3 views); M55657 (10 views); M44310 (1 view); M44994 (4 views); M44672 (1 view); M44569 (1 view); M44634 (1 view); M44590 (1 view);
    Project overview5586
    Documents list1763
    Specimen list11267
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    Bibliography1178




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project404
    Project downloads359
    Document downloads2Copyright Statement for Media (2 downloads);
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