Project 352: E. V. Bärmann. Towards a comprehensive phylogeny of Bovidae, Chapter 2: A total evidence analysis of bovid phylogeny - Dissertation by Eva Bärmann, University of Cambridge UK.
Specimen: Raphicerus melanotis (ZMB/Mammals:2125)

Abstract

Combined-data analyses, also termed total evidence analyses, have proven to be beneficial for phylogeny reconstructions for a range of taxa. For Bovidae, the most diverse clade of ruminants (Artiodactyla, Mammalia), such an analysis was last performed a decade ago. Since then, the range of possible analysis techniques has expanded, now including model-based Bayesian inference that can also be used to incorporate non-molecular data. Furthermore, the possibility of making morphological data widely accessible online, providing detailed information on character states via photographs, facilitates the use and re-use of this type of data. This study presents a data set of 88 cranial, 19 soft-tissue, and 27 behavioural characters, sampled from 58 bovid species. These data are analysed in a simultaneous analysis with molecular data from nine genes (four mitochondrial and five nuclear markers), sampled for 57 bovid species. A few morphological and behavioural characters are identified as apomorphies of bovid taxa. Despite the fact that the majority of characters show homoplasies and cannot unambiguously be optimized on the phylogenetic tree, they allow for inferring the phylogenetic position of two fossil bovid species: †Turcoceros grangeri and †Gazella lydekkeri. The study is designed as a starting point for further combined data analyses of bovids or ruminants in general.


Read the article »

Project DOI: 10.7934/P352, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P352
This project containsMatrices
  • 806 Media
  • 3 Matrices
  • 86 Taxa
  • 212 Specimens
  • 134 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1468 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 8111
Total media associated with cells: 6
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 134
Total characters with associated media: 10
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 332
Total character states with associated media: 170
Total character states with media with labels:122
Total unordered/ordered characters:134/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 352


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Eva Baermann
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/08/13
    86212806134112801588111
    (7554, 429, 128)
    443600
    Robert Asher
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/18/10
    00000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M817' (61 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Addax nasomaculatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878620002
    [2] Aepyceros melampus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0898500002
    [3] Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0847931002
    [4] Ammodorcas clarkei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878511002
    [5] Antidorcas marsupialis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878710002
    [6] Antilope cervicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0888700002
    [7] Boselaphus tragocamelus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838032002
    [8] Capra falconeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1848231002
    [9] Cephalophus rufilatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868111002
    [10] Cephalophus silvicultor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0847731002
    [11] Connochaetes taurinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0817752002
    [12] Damaliscus pygargus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878601002
    [13] Dorcatragus megalotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878501002
    [14] Eudorcas rufifrons
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878311002
    [15] Eudorcas thomsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878401002
    [16] Gazella bennettii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878601002
    [17] Gazella cuvieri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1828151002
    [18] Gazella dorcas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878501002
    [19] Gazella gazella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1838131002
    [20] Gazella leptoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878401002
    [21] Gazella marica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0808071002
    [22] Gazella spekei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848131002
    [23] Gazella subgutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878301002
    [24] Hippotragus niger
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868411002
    [25] Kobus ellipsiprymnus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0898501002
    [26] Kobus kob
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0827761002
    [27] Kobus leche
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0837741002
    [28] Kobus megaceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0797881002
    [29] Kobus vardoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838241002
    [30] Litocranius walleri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0888500002
    [31] Madoqua guentheri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0858521002
    [32] Madoqua kirki
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868511002
    [33] Madoqua saltiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868611002
    [34] Nanger dama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878301002
    [35] Nanger granti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878201002
    [36] Nanger soemmerringi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0888301002
    [37] Neotragus batesi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0858412002
    [38] Neotragus moschatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878701002
    [39] Neotragus pygmaeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878302002
    [40] Oreotragus oreotragus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0898601002
    [41] Oryx beisa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1868221002
    [42] Ourebia ourebi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878511202
    [43] Pantholops hodgsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848331002
    [44] Pelea capreolus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878601002
    [45] Philantomba monticola
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0908101002
    [46] Procapra gutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878301002
    [47] Procapra picticaudata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0837841002
    [48] Procapra przewalskii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0818061002
    [49] Raphicerus campestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878402002
    [50] Raphicerus melanotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868602002
    [51] Raphicerus sharpei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0828152002
    [52] Redunca arundinum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0868221002
    [53] Redunca fulvorufula
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878321202
    [54] Redunca redunca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0817861002
    [55] Rupicapra rupicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0888112002
    [56] Saiga tatarica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878301002
    [57] Sylvicapra grimmia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0898301202
    [58] Tetracerus quadricornis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0847432002
    [59] Tragelaphus imberbis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0878701002
    [60] † Gazella lydekkeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0680191002
    [61] † Turcoceros grangeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1691180002


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M848' (59 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Addax nasomaculatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    022523002
    [2] Aepyceros melampus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027100002
    [3] Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026401002
    [4] Ammodorcas clarkei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025020002
    [5] Antidorcas marsupialis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027000002
    [6] Antilope cervicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026010002
    [7] Boselaphus tragocamelus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026711002
    [8] Capra falconeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    022023002
    [9] Cephalophus rufilatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0221241002
    [10] Cephalophus silvicultor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024921002
    [11] Connochaetes taurinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    029401002
    [12] Damaliscus pygargus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024221002
    [13] Dorcatragus megalotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    017082002
    [14] Eudorcas rufifrons
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018090002
    [15] Eudorcas thomsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027000002
    [16] Gazella bennettii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    081190002
    [17] Gazella cuvieri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1161100002
    [18] Gazella dorcas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    023140002
    [19] Gazella gazella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027100002
    [20] Gazella leptoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0161110002
    [21] Gazella marica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025720002
    [22] Gazella spekei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0131140002
    [23] Gazella subgutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025120002
    [24] Hippotragus niger
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026101002
    [25] Kobus ellipsiprymnus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    023004002
    [26] Kobus kob
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027402002
    [27] Kobus leche
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026304002
    [28] Kobus megaceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018564002
    [29] Kobus vardoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    617504002
    [30] Litocranius walleri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025020002
    [31] Madoqua guentheri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025020002
    [32] Madoqua kirki
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    027100002
    [33] Madoqua saltiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026110002
    [34] Nanger dama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019080002
    [35] Nanger granti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026010002
    [36] Nanger soemmerringi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019080002
    [37] Neotragus batesi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0100161002
    [38] Neotragus moschatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025220002
    [39] Neotragus pygmaeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    080190002
    [40] Oreotragus oreotragus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025211002
    [41] Oryx beisa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026603002
    [42] Ourebia ourebi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025120002
    [43] Pantholops hodgsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0140112002
    [44] Pelea capreolus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024803002
    [45] Philantomba monticola
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026701002
    [46] Procapra gutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0100170002
    [47] Procapra picticaudata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    020561002
    [48] Procapra przewalskii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018581002
    [49] Raphicerus campestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    025020002
    [50] Raphicerus melanotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0120150002
    [51] Raphicerus sharpei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0100170002
    [52] Redunca arundinum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024203002
    [53] Redunca fulvorufula
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024003002
    [54] Redunca redunca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    024303002
    [55] Rupicapra rupicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019153002
    [56] Saiga tatarica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0152111002
    [57] Sylvicapra grimmia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    026101002
    [58] Tetracerus quadricornis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0143121002
    [59] Tragelaphus imberbis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    022123002


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M849' (59 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Addax nasomaculatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019800002
    [2] Aepyceros melampus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [3] Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019900002
    [4] Ammodorcas clarkei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [5] Antilope cervicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    017520002
    [6] Antidorcas marsupialis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [7] Boselaphus tragocamelus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0191200002
    [8] Capra falconeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018010002
    [9] Cephalophus rufilatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    118600002
    [10] Cephalophus silvicultor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019600002
    [11] Connochaetes taurinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019700002
    [12] Damaliscus pygargus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [13] Dorcatragus megalotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [14] Eudorcas rufifrons
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018610002
    [15] Eudorcas thomsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [16] Gazella bennettii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    017520002
    [17] Gazella cuvieri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [18] Gazella dorcas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [19] Gazella gazella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019600002
    [20] Gazella leptoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    017520002
    [21] Gazella marica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019800002
    [22] Gazella spekei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [23] Gazella subgutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019600002
    [24] Hippotragus niger
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [25] Kobus ellipsiprymnus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [26] Kobus kob
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019500002
    [27] Kobus leche
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019500002
    [28] Kobus megaceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019500002
    [29] Kobus vardoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019600002
    [30] Litocranius walleri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [31] Madoqua guentheri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [32] Madoqua kirki
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019100002
    [33] Madoqua saltiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [34] Nanger dama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [35] Nanger granti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [36] Nanger soemmerringi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018510002
    [37] Neotragus batesi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018210002
    [38] Neotragus moschatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018010002
    [39] Neotragus pygmaeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018410002
    [40] Oreotragus oreotragus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [41] Oryx beisa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019900002
    [42] Ourebia ourebi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [43] Pantholops hodgsoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [44] Pelea capreolus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019400002
    [45] Philantomba monticola
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019600002
    [46] Procapra gutturosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019400002
    [47] Procapra picticaudata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019300002
    [48] Procapra przewalskii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019400002
    [49] Raphicerus campestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [50] Raphicerus melanotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018010002
    [51] Raphicerus sharpei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [52] Redunca arundinum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019500002
    [53] Redunca fulvorufula
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [54] Redunca redunca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019500002
    [55] Rupicapra rupicapra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019700002
    [56] Saiga tatarica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018010002
    [57] Sylvicapra grimmia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002
    [58] Tetracerus quadricornis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0191300002
    [59] Tragelaphus imberbis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    019000002


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M107807 (135 views); M107817 (203 views); M107818 (189 views); M107821 (139 views); M142302 (110 views); M142304 (150 views); M142305 (158 views); M142307 (207 views); M142308 (123 views); M142309 (183 views); M148781 (188 views); M149147 (34 views); M148170 (114 views); M148782 (112 views); M148795 (123 views); M284576 (5 views); M149111 (38 views); M148171 (104 views); M46500 (202 views); M46842 (153 views); M148784 (119 views); M46495 (120 views); M46825 (181 views); M148785 (114 views); M148780 (120 views); M149225 (34 views); M98198 (4 views); M148799 (121 views); M148794 (119 views); M148152 (158 views); M148778 (164 views); M46343 (345 views); M46187 (346 views); M46167 (353 views); M46172 (410 views); M148173 (158 views); M46179 (392 views); M148820 (34 views); M148175 (139 views); M148788 (116 views); M149219 (33 views); M148814 (40 views); M149230 (22 views); M149193 (48 views); M148800 (115 views); M46335 (401 views); M148818 (29 views); M46148 (360 views); M46155 (401 views); M149170 (36 views); M107804 (124 views); M148169 (107 views); M98201 (7 views); M149208 (54 views); M148790 (160 views); M149145 (34 views); M148166 (114 views); M149141 (74 views); M149292 (31 views); M149259 (6 views); M148813 (35 views); M149150 (34 views); M148826 (31 views); M149122 (34 views); M148823 (48 views); M148798 (194 views); M149211 (37 views); M148827 (32 views); M149174 (27 views); M149160 (27 views); M148824 (31 views); M149135 (47 views); M148779 (149 views); M47883 (5 views); M149149 (29 views); M148812 (27 views); M149168 (32 views); M149192 (39 views); M149137 (26 views); M149189 (52 views); M149180 (44 views); M46348 (378 views); M149213 (30 views); M148803 (28 views); M149275 (5 views); M46852 (175 views); M47020 (5 views); M149253 (6 views); M149118 (34 views); M148805 (30 views); M149194 (33 views); M149143 (38 views); M148811 (52 views); M149223 (25 views); M149222 (33 views); M149159 (29 views); M149172 (29 views); M148801 (30 views); M148802 (31 views); M148804 (30 views); M148806 (27 views); M148807 (50 views); M148808 (72 views); M148809 (34 views); M148810 (26 views); M148815 (36 views); M148816 (54 views); M148817 (37 views); M148819 (26 views); M148821 (28 views); M148825 (36 views); M149110 (49 views); M149112 (26 views); M149113 (28 views); M149114 (36 views); M149115 (32 views); M149116 (29 views); M149117 (38 views); M149119 (37 views); M149123 (38 views); M149134 (71 views); M149136 (28 views); M149138 (27 views); M149139 (29 views); M149140 (34 views); M149142 (40 views); M149144 (33 views); M149146 (28 views); M149148 (26 views); M149151 (28 views); M149152 (38 views); M149153 (46 views); M149154 (36 views); M149155 (27 views); M149156 (28 views); M149157 (29 views); M149158 (39 views); M149161 (36 views); M149162 (26 views); M149163 (34 views); M149164 (30 views); M149165 (35 views); M149166 (34 views); M149167 (28 views); M149169 (26 views); M149173 (33 views); M149175 (35 views); M149176 (50 views); M149177 (52 views); M149179 (32 views); M149181 (49 views); M149182 (36 views); M149183 (38 views); M149184 (39 views); M149185 (34 views); M149187 (46 views); M149188 (59 views); M149190 (42 views); M149191 (84 views); M149196 (35 views); M149197 (45 views); M149198 (30 views); M149209 (34 views); M149210 (35 views); M149212 (29 views); M149214 (29 views); M149218 (30 views); M149220 (30 views); M149221 (23 views); M149224 (24 views); M149226 (26 views); M149227 (23 views); M149228 (29 views); M149229 (23 views); M149242 (8 views); M46411 (177 views); M46193 (359 views); M46333 (343 views); M46449 (137 views); M286147 (5 views); M46405 (156 views); M149233 (5 views); M48516 (6 views); M46824 (177 views); M47787 (4 views); M46919 (5 views); M46431 (143 views); M46905 (6 views); M47950 (5 views); M47788 (6 views); M47955 (6 views); M46188 (347 views); M46202 (347 views); M149289 (7 views); M47887 (4 views); M149282 (4 views); M46326 (334 views); M46421 (135 views); M46415 (176 views); M46453 (130 views); M46153 (385 views); M46904 (5 views); M46843 (180 views); M149286 (5 views); M151747 (4 views); M46851 (152 views); M46118 (346 views); M46127 (364 views); M46128 (357 views); M46134 (359 views); M46135 (364 views); M46144 (362 views); M46145 (377 views); M46146 (394 views); M46147 (379 views); M46151 (348 views); M46152 (356 views); M46154 (366 views); M46166 (354 views); M46169 (338 views); M46171 (413 views); M46176 (378 views); M46177 (362 views); M46178 (386 views); M46180 (356 views); M46184 (342 views); M46185 (353 views); M46186 (347 views); M46189 (368 views); M46190 (390 views); M46191 (351 views); M46192 (379 views); M46194 (328 views); M46195 (361 views); M46197 (348 views); M46198 (335 views); M46199 (359 views); M46200 (357 views); M46204 (331 views); M46205 (315 views); M46206 (337 views); M46207 (378 views); M46208 (322 views); M46210 (341 views); M46211 (338 views); M46212 (399 views); M46230 (404 views); M46327 (359 views); M46328 (425 views); M46329 (354 views); M46330 (358 views); M46331 (372 views); M46334 (388 views); M46337 (361 views); M46340 (353 views); M46341 (346 views); M46342 (349 views); M46344 (369 views); M46345 (336 views); M46350 (352 views); M46351 (320 views); M46352 (365 views); M46353 (354 views); M46354 (366 views); M46355 (374 views); M46356 (333 views); M46357 (373 views); M46358 (347 views); M46359 (361 views); M46361 (354 views); M46362 (361 views); M46403 (324 views); M46406 (180 views); M46407 (188 views); M46412 (168 views); M46413 (139 views); M46414 (142 views); M46416 (158 views); M46417 (130 views); M46418 (180 views); M46419 (183 views); M46420 (141 views); M46422 (128 views); M46423 (129 views); M46424 (169 views); M46425 (177 views); M46426 (120 views); M46427 (162 views); M46428 (143 views); M46429 (129 views); M46430 (158 views); M46432 (132 views); M46434 (161 views); M46436 (134 views); M46437 (145 views); M46438 (162 views); M46440 (118 views); M46441 (145 views); M46442 (169 views); M46443 (172 views); M46444 (181 views); M46446 (142 views); M46447 (110 views); M46448 (136 views); M46450 (130 views); M46451 (157 views); M46452 (176 views); M46454 (185 views); M46455 (161 views); M46456 (130 views); M46457 (129 views); M46458 (157 views); M46459 (136 views); M46471 (162 views); M46472 (136 views); M46475 (133 views); M46476 (181 views); M46479 (176 views); M46480 (156 views); M46481 (193 views); M46482 (121 views); M46483 (151 views); M46484 (157 views); M46485 (136 views); M46486 (129 views); M46487 (166 views); M46488 (145 views); M46489 (144 views); M46490 (136 views); M46492 (148 views); M46493 (135 views); M46494 (160 views); M46496 (132 views); M46497 (137 views); M46498 (161 views); M46499 (162 views); M46809 (124 views); M46810 (131 views); M46812 (127 views); M46814 (143 views); M46815 (129 views); M46817 (137 views); M46818 (162 views); M46819 (176 views); M46820 (149 views); M46822 (163 views); M46823 (168 views); M46827 (127 views); M46828 (157 views); M46829 (129 views); M46830 (146 views); M46831 (124 views); M46832 (148 views); M46833 (127 views); M46834 (138 views); M46835 (180 views); M46837 (148 views); M46838 (142 views); M46839 (116 views); M46840 (142 views); M46841 (124 views); M46844 (159 views); M46845 (124 views); M46846 (116 views); M46847 (126 views); M46848 (114 views); M46849 (137 views); M46850 (150 views); M46853 (156 views); M46854 (111 views); M46855 (143 views); M46856 (117 views); M46857 (140 views); M46858 (127 views); M46859 (128 views); M46860 (170 views); M46861 (159 views); M46862 (155 views); M46863 (124 views); M46864 (122 views); M284578 (8 views); M149294 (5 views); M149243 (4 views); M149268 (4 views); M149271 (6 views); M46946 (5 views); M47791 (8 views); M98218 (4 views); M149285 (4 views); M284582 (4 views); M46950 (5 views); M98192 (5 views); M284577 (7 views); M46986 (7 views); M286153 (6 views); M149231 (7 views); M286145 (4 views); M286141 (4 views); M149248 (6 views); M149291 (5 views); M47018 (6 views); M48485 (6 views); M47022 (5 views); M46995 (5 views); M47794 (4 views); M47030 (4 views); M47009 (4 views); M47948 (4 views); M47786 (4 views); M46998 (4 views); M47007 (4 views); M47779 (4 views); M47954 (4 views); M47785 (4 views); M47965 (7 views); M47899 (6 views); M47986 (4 views); M47778 (4 views); M47790 (4 views); M48056 (6 views); M47976 (4 views); M48488 (5 views); M48058 (4 views); M48029 (4 views); M47970 (5 views); M46988 (4 views); M98208 (5 views); M47892 (4 views); M47781 (5 views); M47953 (7 views); M48509 (4 views); M98204 (4 views); M47011 (4 views); M47915 (25 views); M47014 (4 views); M47010 (5 views); M47797 (5 views); M48512 (5 views); M47016 (4 views); M47905 (5 views); M47906 (4 views); M47886 (5 views); M98212 (5 views); M98213 (5 views); M47795 (4 views); M98196 (4 views); M47951 (4 views); M47978 (6 views); M48047 (45 views); M48048 (4 views); M48487 (8 views); M48059 (4 views); M98195 (6 views); M47003 (5 views); M48503 (5 views); M47964 (5 views); M48514 (4 views); M46921 (6 views); M51943 (7 views); M47917 (5 views); M286140 (4 views); M48062 (5 views); M98209 (5 views); M149260 (8 views); M149297 (7 views); M46957 (10 views); M47017 (8 views); M149283 (4 views); M149281 (3 views); M149264 (4 views); M149288 (5 views); M46966 (7 views); M149279 (4 views); M47796 (5 views); M47789 (4 views); M98215 (4 views); M47884 (5 views); M149290 (4 views); M48053 (8 views); M48511 (4 views); M46923 (6 views); M47903 (4 views); M46939 (6 views); M47890 (4 views); M46926 (7 views); M47977 (6 views); M46952 (8 views); M47031 (5 views); M46924 (6 views); M46960 (7 views); M47775 (4 views); M48508 (4 views); M48499 (5 views); M46969 (7 views); M46929 (6 views); M46976 (20 views); M46964 (6 views); M98203 (4 views); M46967 (7 views); M46937 (7 views); M46972 (8 views); M47782 (4 views); M46971 (6 views); M46981 (7 views); M98217 (4 views); M46982 (7 views); M46955 (6 views); M98214 (4 views); M46959 (9 views); M47005 (4 views); M47858 (4 views); M48507 (4 views); M46951 (7 views); M46910 (6 views); M48497 (7 views); M46961 (6 views); M47981 (5 views); M46956 (8 views); M46979 (6 views); M47885 (4 views); M46968 (8 views); M46965 (8 views); M48057 (5 views); M46940 (6 views); M46934 (6 views); M46945 (6 views); M46980 (11 views); M46973 (6 views); M46978 (6 views); M46928 (8 views); M46970 (6 views); M46920 (7 views); M46975 (9 views); M48502 (4 views); M46953 (6 views); M98197 (5 views); M46962 (6 views); M46984 (6 views); M98210 (5 views); M46911 (7 views); M46925 (6 views); M48049 (5 views); M46917 (7 views); M47975 (5 views); M46932 (6 views); M46909 (6 views); M48515 (5 views); M47877 (5 views); M98194 (4 views); M48500 (4 views); M47949 (6 views); M149246 (5 views); M98207 (5 views); M47006 (4 views); M149235 (4 views); M47904 (4 views); M47889 (4 views); M98219 (4 views); M286142 (6 views); M46913 (6 views); M48505 (5 views); M47888 (4 views); M47776 (4 views); M46915 (5 views); M47974 (4 views); M149295 (4 views); M47780 (4 views); M284579 (5 views); M149269 (4 views); M149239 (6 views); M47792 (4 views); M47777 (4 views); M47021 (4 views); M46914 (5 views); M47019 (4 views); M47004 (4 views); M47012 (4 views); M47916 (5 views); M47871 (4 views); M98211 (5 views); M48061 (4 views); M98202 (5 views); M48510 (7 views); M48506 (5 views); M48055 (4 views); M151745 (4 views); M149267 (4 views); M149252 (4 views); M149255 (5 views); M149298 (4 views); M46943 (5 views); M286149 (4 views); M286154 (6 views); M46927 (5 views); M149238 (4 views); M149266 (4 views); M149244 (5 views); M149280 (4 views); M286143 (4 views); M286139 (4 views); M286146 (4 views); M286152 (7 views); M149250 (4 views); M149274 (4 views); M149299 (4 views); M149277 (4 views); M286155 (6 views); M286156 (6 views); M149287 (5 views); M149241 (4 views); M151743 (7 views); M149232 (4 views); M286150 (4 views); M46941 (6 views); M47882 (4 views); M47963 (4 views); M46907 (5 views); M46963 (7 views); M46912 (6 views); M48486 (5 views); M48050 (6 views); M47952 (3 views); M46935 (6 views); M46918 (4 views); M48054 (3 views); M48498 (3 views); M46938 (4 views); M48051 (3 views); M284581 (4 views); M149237 (3 views); M149296 (3 views); M149293 (3 views); M284584 (3 views); M149234 (4 views); M284580 (4 views); M149258 (8 views); M149256 (3 views); M149263 (3 views); M149240 (3 views); M149257 (4 views); M149236 (5 views); M46991 (3 views); M46989 (3 views); M47783 (3 views); M46922 (7 views); M47784 (3 views); M149278 (3 views); M46865 (6 views); M47034 (3 views); M46993 (3 views); M47774 (3 views); M46983 (5 views); M47874 (3 views); M46908 (5 views); M46996 (3 views); M286148 (3 views); M47896 (3 views); M149245 (3 views); M47914 (29 views); M286144 (3 views); M286151 (4 views); M48501 (3 views); M47956 (6 views); M149247 (3 views); M149254 (3 views); M149249 (3 views); M46997 (5 views); M151744 (3 views); M151746 (3 views); M149270 (3 views); M98193 (37 views); M46994 (3 views); M51944 (5 views); M47013 (4 views); M48052 (4 views); M149273 (3 views); M47895 (3 views); M47033 (3 views); M149265 (3 views); M46977 (8 views); M47015 (3 views); M46992 (4 views); M149261 (4 views); M47793 (3 views); M48513 (3 views); M149276 (3 views); M149284 (3 views); M98206 (5 views); M46958 (6 views); M47875 (4 views); M47897 (3 views); M149272 (3 views); M46936 (6 views); M46974 (5 views); M46947 (8 views); M47001 (3 views); M149251 (3 views); M47032 (4 views); M47876 (3 views); M47002 (3 views); M47029 (3 views); M47859 (3 views); M48060 (3 views); M47880 (3 views); M47973 (3 views); M46930 (6 views); M47891 (3 views); M48504 (3 views); M284583 (6 views); M98216 (4 views); M46933 (5 views);
    Bibliography10174
    Taxon list11347
    Specimen list78752




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project1115
    Project downloads230
    Matrix downloads64Skull characters Bovidae (45 downloads); Behavior (9 downloads); Glands and Colouration (10 downloads);
    Media downloads821M142313 (2 downloads); M142296 (1 download); M148795 (4 downloads); M148798 (3 downloads); M46337 (2 downloads); M46421 (2 downloads); M46492 (1 download); M47899 (2 downloads); M48485 (2 downloads); M48486 (2 downloads); M48487 (2 downloads); M48488 (2 downloads); M46418 (2 downloads); M46440 (2 downloads); M46820 (2 downloads); M149138 (2 downloads); M149143 (2 downloads); M107819 (2 downloads); M46187 (1 download); M46438 (1 download); M46907 (1 download); M46953 (1 download); M47789 (1 download); M47884 (1 download); M47978 (1 download); M149134 (1 download); M149135 (1 download); M149136 (1 download); M149137 (1 download); M149139 (2 downloads); M149140 (1 download); M149141 (2 downloads); M149142 (1 download); M149144 (1 download); M46117 (1 download); M46178 (1 download); M46179 (1 download); M46180 (1 download); M46446 (1 download); M46471 (1 download); M46472 (1 download); M46812 (1 download); M46815 (1 download); M46950 (1 download); M46986 (1 download); M47034 (1 download); M47875 (1 download); M48048 (1 download); M148176 (1 download); M151746 (1 download); M151747 (1 download); M148792 (1 download); M148793 (1 download); M148794 (1 download); M148796 (1 download); M148797 (1 download); M148799 (1 download); M148800 (1 download); M148801 (2 downloads); M148802 (1 download); M148803 (1 download); M148804 (1 download); M148805 (1 download); M148806 (1 download); M148807 (1 download); M148808 (1 download); M148809 (1 download); M148810 (1 download); M148811 (1 download); M46139 (1 download); M46943 (1 download); M46952 (1 download); M46992 (1 download); M47033 (1 download); M47793 (1 download); M47880 (1 download); M47963 (1 download); M46134 (1 download); M46135 (1 download); M46176 (1 download); M46177 (1 download); M46184 (1 download); M46444 (1 download); M46809 (1 download); M46810 (1 download); M46817 (1 download); M46843 (1 download); M46844 (1 download); M46976 (1 download); M46989 (1 download); M47032 (1 download); M47876 (1 download); M47975 (1 download); M98192 (1 download); M98193 (1 download); M98194 (1 download); M98195 (1 download); M98196 (1 download); M98197 (1 download); M98198 (1 download); M98201 (1 download); M98202 (1 download); M98203 (1 download); M98204 (1 download); M98206 (1 download); M98207 (1 download); M98208 (1 download); M98209 (1 download); M98210 (1 download); M98211 (1 download); M98212 (1 download); M98213 (1 download); M98214 (1 download); M98215 (1 download); M98216 (1 download); M98217 (1 download); M98218 (1 download); M98219 (1 download); M149298 (1 download); M46185 (1 download); M46186 (1 download); M46443 (1 download); M46449 (1 download); M46475 (1 download); M46476 (1 download); M46814 (1 download); M46842 (1 download); M46904 (1 download); M46988 (1 download); M47882 (1 download); M47883 (1 download); M47950 (1 download); M48055 (1 download); M46148 (1 download); M46151 (1 download); M46188 (1 download); M46451 (1 download); M46452 (1 download); M46823 (1 download); M46845 (1 download); M46910 (1 download); M46994 (1 download); M149299 (1 download); M46144 (1 download); M46145 (1 download); M46146 (1 download); M46147 (1 download); M46437 (1 download); M46822 (1 download); M46908 (1 download); M46909 (1 download); M46978 (1 download); M46993 (1 download); M46152 (2 downloads); M46153 (1 download); M46154 (1 download); M46155 (1 download); M46166 (1 download); M46167 (1 download); M46189 (1 download); M46414 (1 download); M46434 (1 download); M46435 (1 download); M46436 (1 download); M46824 (1 download); M46825 (1 download); M46846 (1 download); M46847 (1 download); M46848 (1 download); M46911 (2 downloads); M46912 (1 download); M46913 (1 download); M46914 (1 download); M46915 (1 download); M46955 (1 download); M46956 (1 download); M46974 (1 download); M46995 (1 download); M46996 (1 download); M46997 (1 download); M46998 (1 download); M47794 (1 download); M47795 (1 download); M47885 (1 download); M47986 (1 download); M48029 (1 download); M48049 (1 download); M48058 (1 download); M48059 (1 download); M48060 (1 download); M48061 (1 download); M48062 (1 download); M107818 (1 download); M107820 (1 download); M107821 (1 download); M107822 (1 download); M107823 (1 download); M142314 (1 download); M142315 (1 download); M142316 (1 download); M142317 (1 download); M142318 (1 download); M142319 (1 download); M142320 (1 download); M142321 (1 download); M142322 (1 download); M149197 (1 download); M149208 (1 download); M149209 (1 download); M149210 (1 download); M149211 (1 download); M149212 (1 download); M149213 (1 download); M149214 (1 download); M286139 (1 download); M286140 (1 download); M286141 (1 download); M286142 (1 download); M286143 (1 download); M286144 (1 download); M286145 (1 download); M286146 (1 download); M286147 (1 download); M286148 (1 download); M286149 (1 download); M286150 (1 download); M286151 (1 download); M286152 (1 download); M286153 (1 download); M286154 (1 download); M286155 (1 download); M286156 (1 download); M46191 (1 download); M46361 (1 download); M46479 (1 download); M46480 (1 download); M46849 (1 download); M47774 (1 download); M47791 (1 download); M47797 (1 download); M47914 (1 download); M47915 (1 download); M48047 (1 download); M48056 (1 download); M48516 (1 download); M46192 (1 download); M46193 (1 download); M46194 (1 download); M46195 (1 download); M46197 (1 download); M46198 (1 download); M46199 (1 download); M46200 (1 download); M46202 (1 download); M46362 (1 download); M46412 (1 download); M46415 (1 download); M46430 (1 download); M46431 (1 download); M46450 (1 download); M46828 (1 download); M46829 (1 download); M46917 (1 download); M46946 (1 download); M46958 (1 download); M46959 (1 download); M46960 (1 download); M46983 (1 download); M47002 (1 download); M47003 (1 download); M47004 (1 download); M47005 (1 download); M47031 (1 download); M47775 (1 download); M47792 (1 download); M47858 (1 download); M47887 (1 download); M47888 (1 download); M47965 (1 download); M47974 (1 download); M48497 (1 download); M48498 (1 download); M48499 (1 download); M48500 (1 download); M48501 (1 download); M48502 (1 download); M48503 (1 download); M48504 (1 download); M48505 (1 download); M48506 (1 download); M48507 (1 download); M48508 (1 download); M48509 (1 download); M48510 (1 download); M48511 (1 download); M48512 (1 download); M48513 (1 download); M46203 (1 download); M46204 (1 download); M46205 (1 download); M46206 (1 download); M46207 (1 download); M46208 (1 download); M46209 (1 download); M46210 (1 download); M46211 (1 download); M46212 (1 download); M46403 (1 download); M46407 (1 download); M46424 (1 download); M46429 (1 download); M46484 (1 download); M46485 (1 download); M46830 (1 download); M46850 (1 download); M46851 (1 download); M46852 (1 download); M46918 (1 download); M46919 (1 download); M46920 (1 download); M46921 (1 download); M46961 (1 download); M47006 (1 download); M47007 (1 download); M47009 (1 download); M47010 (1 download); M47029 (1 download); M47889 (1 download); M47890 (1 download); M47954 (1 download); M106565 (1 download); M46172 (1 download); M46213 (1 download); M46214 (1 download); M46224 (1 download); M46230 (1 download); M46427 (1 download); M46428 (1 download); M46454 (1 download); M46486 (1 download); M46487 (1 download); M46853 (1 download); M46854 (1 download); M46922 (1 download); M46923 (1 download); M46945 (1 download); M46962 (1 download); M46979 (1 download); M47011 (1 download); M47786 (1 download); M47891 (1 download); M107814 (1 download); M107815 (1 download); M107816 (1 download); M107817 (1 download); M149145 (1 download); M149146 (1 download); M149147 (1 download); M149148 (1 download); M149149 (1 download); M149150 (1 download); M149151 (1 download); M149152 (1 download); M149153 (1 download); M149154 (1 download); M149155 (1 download); M149156 (1 download); M149157 (1 download); M46326 (1 download); M46963 (1 download); M47892 (1 download); M47874 (1 download); M47787 (1 download); M47785 (1 download); M47784 (1 download); M47012 (1 download); M46924 (1 download); 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