Project 3521: M. R. Borths, N. J. Stevens. 2019. Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, gen. et sp. nov. (Hyainailourinae, Hyaenodonta, ‘Creodonta,’ Mammalia), a gigantic carnivore from the earliest Miocene of Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (1):e1570222.
Specimen: † Simbakubwa (unvouchered)
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Abstract

Hyainailourine hyaenodonts are among the largest terrestrial carnivorous mammals known. The clade is widely dispersed, found in Eurasia, North America, and Afro-Arabia in the Paleogene and early Neogene. In this study, we describe dental and postcranial material from Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, gen. et sp. nov., the most complete hyainailourine known from sub-Saharan Africa. The material is from a relatively young adult from the early Miocene locality of Meswa Bridge, Kenya. Simbakubwa differs from Hyainailouros in exhibiting lingually oriented molar protocones, gracile metastyles, and buccolingually compressed, shearing canines. Like other large Miocene hyainailourines, Simbakubwa has deep carnassial notches on the molars and tall paracones fused to shorter metacones forming single piercing cusps. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis recovers Simbakubwa as the sister taxon of a clade of large-bodied Miocene hyainailourines that includes Hyainailouros and Megistotherium. Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction supports an Afro-Arabian origin for Hyainailourinae with subsequent dispersal to Eurasia during the early Miocene. Regression analysis based on carnassial size is applied to Simbakubwa and closely related hyainailourines, recovering a body mass up to 1,500 kg for the new taxon. The evolution and extinction of Hyainailourinae offers important insights for interpreting ecological transitions from Paleogene to Neogene faunas in Afro-Arabia and Eurasia.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1570222

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3521, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3521
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 93 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 156 Characters


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Total scored cells: 7610
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 156
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 384
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:137/19
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MorphoBank Project 3521

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    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    Tanya Berardini
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/26/19
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26212' (93 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
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    [1] † Maelestes gobiensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4711010900001
    [2] † Altacreodus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    67968900001
    [3] † Akhnatenavus leptognathus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    72848400001
    [4] † Akhnatenavus nefertiticyon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    59979700001
    [5] † Allopterodon torvidus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    63939300001
    [6] † Anasinopa spp
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5410210200001
    [7] † Apterodon gaudryi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    87696900001
    [8] † Apterodon langebadrae
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4611011000001
    [9] † Apterodon macrognathus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    315315300001
    [10] † Arfia gingerichi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    79777700001
    [11] † Arfia opisthotoma
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    65919100001
    [12] † Arfia shoshoniensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    59979700001
    [13] † Boritia duffaudi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    101555500001
    [14] † Boualitomus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    104525200001
    [15] † Brychotherium ephalmos
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5510110100001
    [16] † Buhakia spp.
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    99575600001
    [17] † Cynohyaenodon cayluxi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4211411400001
    [18] † Cynohyaenodon trux
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    68898800001
    [19] † Dissopsalis carnifex
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    59979700001
    [20] † Dissopsalis pyroclasticus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    70868600001
    [21] † Eoproviverra
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    109474700001
    [22] † Eurotherium matthesi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3512112100001
    [23] † Eurotherium theriodis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4910710700001
    [24] † Exiguodon pilgrimi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    73838300001
    [25] † Falcatodon schlosseri
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    77807900001
    [26] † Furodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    84727200001
    [27] † Galecyon chronius
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    65919100001
    [28] † Galecyon mordax
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    88696800001
    [29] † Galecyon morloi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    92646400001
    [30] † Galecyon peregrinus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    108494800001
    [31] † Gazinocyon whiteae
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5310310300001
    [32] † Glibzegdouia
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    115414100001
    [33] † Hemipsalodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4910710700001
    [34] † Hyaenodon ergiliyndzo
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3811811800001
    [35] † Hyaenodon exiguus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4611011000001
    [36] † Hyaenodon horridus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    415215200001
    [37] † Hyaenodon minor
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3012612600001
    [38] † Hyaenodon neimongoliensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    80777600001
    [39] † Hyainailouros bugtiensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    96606000001
    [40] † Hyainailouros napakensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    130262600001
    [41] † Hyainailouros sulzeri
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    581009800001
    [42] † Arrisdrift hyainailourine
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    125313100001
    [43] † Indohyaenodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    66909000001
    [44] † Isohyaenodon andrewsi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    109474700001
    [45] † Isohyaenodon zadoki
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    98585800001
    [46] † Kerberos
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3711911900001
    [47] † Koholia
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    131252500001
    [48] † Kyawdawia
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    66909000001
    [49] † Lahimia
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    123333300001
    [50] † Leakitherium hiwegi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    60969600001
    [51] † Leonhardtina gracilis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5510210100001
    [52] † Lesmesodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    88686800001
    [53] † Limnocyon verus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3112512500001
    [54] † Masrasector aegypticum
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    122343400001
    [55] † Masrasector ligabuei
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    124323200001
    [56] † Masrasector nananubis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    2513113100001
    [57] † Matthodon tritens
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    88686800001
    [58] † Megistotherium
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    77797900001
    [59] † Metapterodon kaiseri
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    126303000001
    [60] † Metasinopa spp
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    61959500001
    [61] † Mlanyama sugu
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    117393900001
    [62] † Morlodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    79777700001
    [63] † Orienspterodon dahkoensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    77797900001
    [64] † Oxyaenoides bicuspidens
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    64929200001
    [65] † Oxyaenoides lindgreni
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    93636300001
    [66] † Paratritemnodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    70868600001
    [67] † Paroxyaena sp
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    58999800001
    [68] † Parvagula palulae
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    111454500001
    [69] † Parvavorodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    100565600001
    [70] † Preregidens langebadrae
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    109474700001
    [71] † Prolimnocyon atavus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4710910900001
    [72] † Prolimnocyon chowi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    106505000001
    [73] † Propterodon morrisi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    69878700001
    [74] † Propterodon tongi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    102545400001
    [75] † Prototomus minimus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    78787800001
    [76] † Prototomus phobos
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4611111000001
    [77] † Proviverra
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5610010000001
    [78] † Pterodon africanus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    4710910900001
    [79] † Pterodon dasyuroides
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    2912812700001
    [80] † Pterodon phiomensis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    100565600001
    [81] † Pyrocyon strenuus
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    66909000001
    [82] † Quasiapterodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    66909000001
    [83] † Quercytherium simplicidens
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    5310310300001
    [84] † Quercytherium tenebrosum
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    71868500001
    [85] † Sectisodon markgrafi
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    128282800001
    [86] † Simbakubwa
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    74828200001
    [87] † Sinopa grangeri
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    2113613500001
    [88] † Sinopa jilinia
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    112444400001
    [89] † Sivapterodon lahirii
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    133232300001
    [90] † Teratodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    74828200001
    [91] † Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    3512112100001
    [92] † Tinerhodon
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    110464600001
    [93] † Tritemnodon agilis
    Last Modified in 09/26/19
    2812812800001


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