Project 3597: M. Lorente. 2020. COTYLAR FOSSA, ITS INTERPRETATION AND FUNCTIONALITY. THE CASE FROM SOUTH AMERICAN NATIVE UNGULATES. Ameghiniana. 57 (4):354–369.
Specimen: † Astraponotus (Museo de La Plata/MLP :12-1629)
View: dorsal view of right astragalus

Abstract

The cotylar fossa is a complex anatomical character in the astragalar medial malleolar facet. It represents a dynamic relationship between the astragalus and the tibia in the upper tarsal joint. The astragalus must accommodate the medial tibial malleolus when the tibia is in an extreme flexion. It is one of the three morphological synapomorphies considered for Afrotheria, although it is also a recurrent trait among different groups of mammals. Here, fossil South American Native Ungulates and extant mammals were surveyed to reevaluate how much this character is spread and how variable it is. Beyond afrotherians, it is observed that it also appears in primates, macropodid marsupials, laurasiatherian archaic ungulates, perissodactyls, pantodonts, and dinoceratans; it is also in some but not all of the extinct endemic ungulates from South America. No function has been suggested before for the presence of a cotylar fossa. The cotylar fossa could be an adaptation to a passive, rest related posture. Extreme flexion of the tibia/fibula over the foot happens when animal sits or lies down. Because of this, the cotylar fossa may not represent a synapomorphy of afrotherians but a homoplastic feature convergently developed several times. The cotylar fossa, as first described, is more characteristic of the order Primates than of any other taxa, including Afrotheria. But, there is more than one kind of cotylar fossa, and this variation could correspond to more than one cause, including phylogenetic constraints.


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Article DOI: 10.5710/AMGH.08.06.2020.3306

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3597, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3597
This project containsMatrices
  • 48 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Folio
  • 107 Taxa
  • 57 Specimens
  • 2 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 66.46M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 70
Total media associated with cells: 49
Total labels associated with cell media: 9
Characters
Total characters: 2
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 4
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:2/0
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MorphoBank Project 3597

    Authors' Institutions

    • Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

    • Universidad Nacional de la Plata



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Malena Lorente
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 08/31/20
    107574820070
    (70, 0, 0)
    4990


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26382' (63 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    member
    access
    [1] † DidolodusMACN?
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [2] † DidolodusAMNH?
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000111
    [3] Hyrax
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02100101
    [4] Procavia
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02000201
    [5] Tenrec
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [6] Ozotoceros
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02100111
    [7] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 02/13/20
    11000101
    [8] Kobus leche
    Last Modified in 02/14/20
    02000201
    [9] † Astraponotus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [10] † Astrapotheriidae ind.
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    20000001
    [11] † Astrapotherium
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11100001
    [12] † Liarthrus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000111
    [13] † Parastrapotherium
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000111
    [14] † Trigonostylops
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [15] Conepatus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [16] Eira
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [17] Galictis
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [18] Leopardus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11000201
    [19] Lincodon
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [20] Lontra
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02000201
    [21] Lycalopex
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [22] Potus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [23] Procyon
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [24] Macropidae
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [25] Macropus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11000111
    [26] † Diadiaphorus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    02000201
    [27] † Licaphrium
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    02100201
    [28] † Macrauchenia
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    02100101
    [29] † Miguelsoria
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [30] † Protolipterna
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [31] † Theosodon
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11000101
    [32] † Licaphrium
    Last Modified in 12/19/19
    20000001
    [33] † Thoatherium
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11000101
    [34] † Adinotherium
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11000111
    [35] † Asmodeus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [36] † Colbertia
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [37] † Hegetotherium
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11000101
    [38] † Homalodotherium
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [39] † Morphippus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [40] † Nesodon
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [41] † Notostylops
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [42] † Pachyrukhos
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11100001
    [43] † Pantostylops
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [44] † Periphragnis
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [45] † Pleurostylodon
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [46] † Protypotherium
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    20000001
    [47] † Thomashuxleya
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [48] † Toxodon
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000111
    [49] † Trachytherus
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11000101
    [50] † Pantolambda
    Last Modified in 03/03/20
    11100001
    [51] Equus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11000221
    [52] Alouatta
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11000101
    [53] Callithrix
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11000101
    [54] Mandrillus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [55] Pan
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    20000001
    [56] Papio
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02000201
    [57] Presbytis
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    20000001
    [58] † Pyrotherium
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    11000101
    [59] Dolichotis
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    02100101
    [60] Lagidium
    Last Modified in 03/12/20
    02000201
    [61] Lagostomus
    Last Modified in 12/12/19
    11100001
    [62] Rattus
    Last Modified in 02/14/20
    11000101
    [63] Dasypus
    Last Modified in 08/12/20
    02000201


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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
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    Matrix downloads5Cotylar fossa (5 downloads);