Project 3614: G. Musser, J. A. Clarke. 2020. An Exceptionally Preserved Specimen From the Green River Formation Elucidates Complex Phenotypic Evolution in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 8:null.
Specimen: † Nahmavis grandei (FMNH/PA:778)
View: photograph of slab surface

Abstract

The stem lineage relationships and early phenotypic evolution of Charadriiformes
(shorebirds) and Gruiformes (rails, cranes, and allies) remain unresolved. It is still
debated whether these clades are sister-taxa. New phylogenetic analyses incorporating
Paleogene fossils have the potential to reveal the evolutionary connections of these
two speciose and evolutionarily critical neoavian subclades. Although Gruiformes have
a rich Paleogene fossil record, most of these fossils have not been robustly placed.
The Paleogene fossil record of Charadriiformes is scarce and largely consists of
fragmentary single elements. Only one proposed Eocene charadriiform-like taxon,
Scandiavis mikkelseni of Denmark, is represented by a partial skeleton. Here, we
describe a new species from the early Eocene Green River Formation of North America
comprising a partial skeleton and feather remains. Because the skeleton lacks the
pectoral girdle and forelimbs as in S. mikkelseni, only features of the skull, axial skeleton,
and hind limb are available to resolve the phylogenetic placement of this taxon. These
anatomical subregions initially showed features seen in Charadriiformes and Gruiformes.
To assess placement of this taxon, we use a matrix consisting of 693 morphological
characters and 60 taxa, including S. mikkelseni and the oldest known charadriiform
taxa represented by single elements. These more fragmentary records comprise two
distal humeri from the earliest Eocene Naranbulag Formation of Mongolia and the early
Eocene Nanjemoy Formation of Virginia. Our phylogenetic analyses recover the new
taxon and S. mikkelseni alternatively as a charadriiform or as a stem-gruiform; placement
is contingent upon enforced relationships for major neoavian subclades recovered
by recent molecular-based phylogenies. Specifically, when constraint trees based on
results that do not recover Charadriiformes and Gruiformes as sister-taxa are used, the
new taxon and S. mikkelseni are recovered within stem Gruiformes. Both Paleogene
fossil humeri are consistently recovered within crown Charadriiformes. If placement of
these humeri or the new taxon as charadriiforms are correct, this may indicate that
recent divergence time analyses have underestimated the crown age of another major
crown avian subclade; however, more complete sampling of these taxa is necessary,
especially of more complete specimens with pectoral elements.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2020.559929

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3614, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3614
This project containsMatrices
  • 2 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 3 Documents
  • 1 Folio
  • 60 Taxa
  • 3 Specimens
  • 693 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1.11G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 33197
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 693
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 2105
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:690/3
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 3614

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of Texas at Austin



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    comms
       
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    comms
        
    medialabels
    rules
    Grace Musser
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/03/20
    60321693000033197
    (33197, 0, 0)
    0000
    Julia Clarke
    Observer
    Last logged in Never
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26886' (60 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Crypturellus undulatus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    9360060000002
    [2] Tinamus solitarius
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    8460960900002
    [3] Lophura bulweri
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5763663600002
    [4] Chauna torquata
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6662762700002
    [5] Anas platyrhynchos
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6363063000002
    [6] Mergus serrator
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6962462400002
    [7] Gallus gallus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5364064000002
    [8] Gavia immer
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6562862800002
    [9] Spheniscus humboldti
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    7262162100002
    [10] Phoenicopterus chilensis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4265165100002
    [11] Podiceps cristata
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6562862800002
    [12] Caprimulgus carolinensis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    7461961900002
    [13] Eudromias ruficollis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4065365300002
    [14] Jacana jacana
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    2566866800002
    [15] Haematopus ostralegus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4065365300002
    [16] Burhinus bistriatus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3166266200002
    [17] Charadrius semipalmatus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    2866566500002
    [18] Vanellus coronatus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    7262162100002
    [19] Chionis alba
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3366066000002
    [20] Pluvianus aegyptius
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6063363300002
    [21] Larus atricilla
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3066366300002
    [22] Recurvirostra avosetta
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6263163100002
    [23] Stercorarius longicaudus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4165265200002
    [24] Thinocorus rumicivorous
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    8261161100002
    [25] Turnix nigricollis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    10758658600002
    [26] † IGM 100/1435
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    6858800002
    [27] † Scandiavis mikkelseni
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    52117217200002
    [28] † Nahmavis grandei
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    50119219200002
    [29] † Salmila robusta
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    55613713700002
    [30] Opisthocomus hoazin
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3865565500002
    [31] Phaethon aethereus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4764664600002
    [32] Psophia crepitans
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3465965900002
    [33] Aramus guarana
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3465965900002
    [34] Balearica regulorum
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3665765700002
    [35] Grus japonensis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6263163100002
    [36] Podica senegalensis
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    23745645600002
    [37] Heliornis fulica
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4964464400002
    [38] Heliopais personata
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    44424924900002
    [39] Sarothrura lugens
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    36932432400002
    [40] Sarothrura pulchra
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5663763700002
    [41] Himantornis haematopus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3565865800002
    [42] Habroptila wallacii
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5463963900002
    [43] Gallicrex cinerea
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3965465400002
    [44] Canirallus oceleus batesi
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    28740640600002
    [45] Aramides cajanea
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    2566866800002
    [46] Rallus longirostris
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3066366300002
    [47] Gallinula chloropus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    2866566500002
    [48] Porphyrula martinica
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4365065000002
    [49] † Pellornis mikkelseni
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    51917417400002
    [50] † Messelornis cristata
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    40329029000002
    [51] † Songzia acutunguis
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    55813513500002
    [52] Eurypyga helias
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    4065365300002
    [53] Rhynochetos jubatus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    3965465400002
    [54] Chlamydotis macqueenii
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    10159259200002
    [55] Cariama cristata
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5164264200002
    [56] Chunga burmeisteri
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    12057357300002
    [57] Columba livia
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    5164264200002
    [58] Cathartes burrovianus
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    8660760700002
    [59] Leptosomus discolor
    Last Modified in 08/14/20
    6462962900002
    [60] † SMF av 619
    Last Modified in 11/03/20
    6876600002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views259
    Project overview56
    Documents list9
    Matrix views27Matrix landing page (15 views); Morphology Matrix (12 views);
    Taxon list64
    Media views43Media search (33 views); M686963 (5 views); M686961 (5 views);
    Folio views13Folio list (7 views); TIFF CT Scan Files and STL files (6 views);
    Specimen list22
    Views for media list21
    Bibliography4




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project7
    Project downloads3
    Matrix downloads4Morphology Matrix (4 downloads);