Project 3636: L. M. Marilao, Z. T. Kulik, C. A. Sidor. 2020. Histology of the preparietal: a neomorphic cranial element in dicynodont therapsids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. epub ahead of print:e1770775.
Specimen: † Diictodon (NHCC LB840)
View: Coronal thin section of skull


The preparietal, a neomorphic midline ossification on the skull roof, is thought to have evolved three times in therapsids, but its development and homology remain poorly understood. Here, we provide preliminary data on the histology of this element in specimens referred to Diictodon feliceps and an indeterminate species of Lystrosaurus. The preparietal has previously been noted to vary substantially in its shape on the dorsal surface of the skull in several dicynodonts, and we found similar variation in thin section. In Diictodon, the preparietal forms a prong that embeds itself entirely within the frontals and shows evidence of a midline suture anteriorly. The sectioned specimen of Lystrosaurus shows histological evidence of immaturity and features a well-defined midline suture at the posterior end of the preparietal, although an anterior prong was not present. In both taxa, the anteroventral portion of the preparietal forms a strongly interdigitating suture with the underlying frontals and parietals. More posteriorly, the preparietal is composed of fibrolamellar bone suggestive of rapid posteroventral growth. In large dicynodont species, the dorsal expression of the preparietal appears to show negative allometry compared with other cranial roofing elements during ontogeny, but the significance of this geometry is unclear. In addition, histological work is needed on the preparietal in gorgonopsians and biarmosuchians to determine whether the features characterizing dicynodonts are also seen in the other two groups of therapsids that evolved a preparietal. The therapsid preparietal provides a rare opportunity to study the development and evolution of a neomorphic cranial element in the vertebrate fossil record.

Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2020.1770775

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3636,
This project contains
  • 18 Media
  • 2 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 548.57M

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 3636
  • Creation Date:
    12 February 2020
  • Publication Date:
    24 July 2020
  • Project views: 5585

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of Washington


    member name taxa specimens media
    Lianna Marilao
    Project Administrator
    Zoe Kulik
    Full membership
    Christian Sidor
    Full membership
    Christian Sidor
    Full membership

    Project has no matrices defined.

    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views5585
    Project overview449
    Media views3375Media search (833 views); M685218 (141 views); M685219 (140 views); M685220 (139 views); M685221 (139 views); M685222 (147 views); M685223 (147 views); M685224 (141 views); M685225 (137 views); M685226 (145 views); M685227 (146 views); M685228 (143 views); M685229 (134 views); M685230 (139 views); M685231 (137 views); M685232 (143 views); M685233 (143 views); M685234 (138 views); M685235 (143 views);
    Specimen list688
    Taxon list590
    Views for media list294
    Documents list1

    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project124
    Project downloads124