Project 3669: F. A. Supeleto, M. Schubert, B. F. Santos, L. A. Basilio, A. P. Aguiar. 2020. Species delimitation, environmental cline and phylogeny for a new Neotropical genus of Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae). PLOS ONE. 15 (10):e0237233.
Specimen: Cryptoxenodon metamorphus (UFES/Entomology:FAS1127)
View: habitus holotype female

Abstract

A morphologically unusual Cryptini, Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. Supeleto, Santos & Aguiar, is described and illustrated, with a single species, C. metamorphus sp. nov. Supeleto, Santos & Aguiar, apparently occurring in two disjunct populations in northern and southeastern South America. The highly dimorphic female and male are described and illustrated. The phylogenetic relationships of the new genus are investigated using a matrix with 308 other species of Cryptini in 182 genera, based on 109 morphological characters and molecular data from seven loci. The analyses clearly support Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. as a distinct genus, closest to Debilos Townes and Diapetimorpha Viereck. Species limits and definition are investigated, but despite much morphological variation the analyses at the specimen level do not warrant the division of the studied populations into separate species. The considerable morphological variation is explored with principal component analyses of mixed features, and a new procedure is proposed for objective analysis of colors. The relationship of color and structural variation with altitude and latitude is demonstrated and discussed, representing an important case study for Ichneumonidae. Externally, Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. can be recognized mainly by its unusually large mandibles, but other diagnostic features include clypeus wide; sternaulus complete, distinct and crenulate throughout; areolet closed, about as long as pterostigma width; petiole anteriorly with distinct triangular projection on each side, spiracle near posterior 0.25; propodeum without posterior transverse carina; and propodeal apophyses conspicuously projected.


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Article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237233

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3669, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3669
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    Authors' Institutions

    • National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    • Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo



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    Fernanda Aparecida Supeleto
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