Project 3687: J. Atterholt, J. H. Hutchison, J. K. O’Connor. 2018. The most complete enantiornithine from North America and a phylogenetic analysis of the Avisauridae. PeerJ. 6:e5910.
Specimen: † Avisaurus archibaldi (unvouchered)
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Abstract

The most complete known North American enantiornithine was collected in 1992 but never formally described. The so-called “Kaiparowits avisaurid” remains one of the most exceptional Late Cretaceous enantiornithine fossils. We recognize this specimen as a new taxon, Mirarce eatoni (gen. et sp. nov.), and provide a complete anatomical description. We maintain that the specimen is referable to the Avisauridae, a clade previously only known in North America from isolated tarsometatarsi. Information from this specimen helps to clarify evolutionary trends within the Enantiornithes. Its large body size supports previously observed trends toward larger body mass in the Late Cretaceous. However, trends toward increased fusion of compound elements across the clade as a whole are weak compared to the Ornithuromorpha. The new specimen reveals for the first time the presence of remige papillae in the enantiornithines, indicating this feature was evolved in parallel to dromaeosaurids and derived ornithuromorphs. Although morphology of the pygostyle and (to a lesser degree) the coracoid and manus appear to remain fairly static during the 65 million years plus of enantiornithine evolution, by the end of the Mesozoic at least some enantiornithine birds had evolved several features convergent with the Neornithes including a deeply keeled sternum, a narrow furcula with a short hypocleidium, and ulnar quill knobs—all features that indicate refinement of the flight apparatus and increased aerial abilities. We conduct the first cladistic analysis to include all purported avisuarid enantiornithines, recovering an Avisauridae consisting of a dichotomy between North and South American taxa. Based on morphological observations and supported by cladistic analysis, we demonstrate Avisaurus to be paraphyletic and erect a new genus for “A. gloriae,” Gettyia gen. nov.


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Article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5910

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3687, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3687
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 43 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 252 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 77.44k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 5112
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 252
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 614
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:0/252
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MorphoBank Project 3687

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of California Berkeley

    • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS

    • Raymond Alf Museum of Paleontology (The Webb Schools)

    • Western University of Health Sciences

    • CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/22/20
    4311252005112
    (5112, 0, 0)
    000
    Jessie Atterholt
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26559' (43 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Dromaeosauridae
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1524523700002
    [2] † Archaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    5619619600002
    [3] † Jeholornis prima
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10115515100002
    [4] † Sapeornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    8317116900002
    [5] † Confuciusornis sanctus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    3022522200002
    [6] † Changchengornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    14710710500002
    [7] † Eoconfuciusornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13412111800002
    [8] † Cathyaornis yandica
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12813112400002
    [9] † Concornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1561009600002
    [10] † Elsornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    177827500002
    [11] † Eoalulavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    166868600002
    [12] † Eocathayornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    189656300002
    [13] † Eoenantiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1571029500002
    [14] † Gobipteryx n valifanovi
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1531069900002
    [15] † Iberomesornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    184746800002
    [16] † Longipteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10215715000002
    [17] † Longirostravis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    14611410600002
    [18] † Protopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1571019500002
    [19] † Rapaxavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    11814113400002
    [20] † Shanweiniao
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    175897700002
    [21] † Shenqiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    14311710900002
    [22] † Eopengornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13212312000002
    [23] † Pengornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13512511700002
    [24] † Avisaurus archibaldi
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    228242400002
    [25] † Gettya ('Avisaurus') gloriae
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    228262400002
    [26] † Mirarce eatoni
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1541029800002
    [27] † Soroavisaurus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    217353500002
    [28] † Intiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    237161500002
    [29] † Bauxitornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    232222000002
    [30] † Enantiophoenix
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    224302800002
    [31] † Halimornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    224292800002
    [32] † Neuquenornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    184726800002
    [33] † Mystiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    229232300002
    [34] † Archaeorhynchus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12613412600002
    [35] † Apsaravis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10515114700002
    [36] † Yanornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10015615200002
    [37] † Patagopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10115215100002
    [38] † Gansus yumenensis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    7717717500002
    [39] † Longicrusavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    11314313900002
    [40] † Ichthyornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    3821721400002
    [41] † Hesperornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    7617617600002
    [42] Anas
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    524724700002
    [43] Gallus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    524724700002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views173
    Project overview27
    Matrix views17Morphological matrix of the paper by Atterholt et al. 2018 (prepared by MorphoBank curators from original submission) (6 views); Matrix landing page (11 views);
    Taxon list63
    Media views30Media search (26 views); M687271 (4 views);
    Bibliography4
    Documents list13
    Specimen list12
    Views for media list7




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project3
    Project downloads3