Project 3688: J. K. O’Connor, Z. Zhou. 2013. A redescription of Chaoyangia beishanensis (Aves) and a comprehensive phylogeny of Mesozoic birds. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 11 (7):889-906.
Specimen: † Hesperornis (unvouchered)
View: NA

Abstract

We review the enigmatic Chaoyangia beishanensis, one of the earliest birds described from the Jiufotang Formation, north-eastern China, and the first to be identified as an ornithurine (Aves: Ornithothoraces) and thus a member of the clade that includes living birds. A complete discussion of the validity of this taxon, which once included the holotype of Songlingornis, is provided, along with a revised diagnosis. The morphology of Chaoyangia is described, including extensive comparison with better known, recently discovered ornithurines as well as several other groups of Mesozoic birds (Confuciusornithiformes, Sapeornithiformes, Enantiornithes). Although preserved information is limited, the large number of fused sacral vertebrae and presence of a distal dorsal process on the ischium are among the features supporting early hypotheses that the only known specimen of Chaoyangia represents an ornithurine. Unique among ornithurines, Chaoyangia possesses two dorsal processes on the ischium, and thus remains a valid taxon. We include this taxon in a cladistic analysis to test morphological hypotheses regarding its systematic position. Although the results of the analysis are highly resolved and support the referral of Chaoyangia and Zhongjianornis to Ornithurae, support for the tree overall is very low. Recently discovered taxa have blurred the once clear morphological gap separating the two ornithothoracine clades (Ornithurae and Enantiornithes), and thus the increase in taxonomic diversity has caused a decrease in the stability of hypothetical&break; relationships.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2012.690455

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3688, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3688
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 60 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 245 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 99.56k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6527
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 245
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 584
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:213/32
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MorphoBank Project 3688

    Authors' Institutions

    • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS



    Members

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    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/11/20
    6021245006527
    (6527, 0, 0)
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    Jingmai O’Connor
    Full membership
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26560' (60 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Dromaeosauridae
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1523523000002
    [2] † Archaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    5319219200002
    [3] † Jeholornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    9815114700002
    [4] † Rahonavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    152979300002
    [5] † Shenzhouraptor
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    186635900002
    [6] † Jixiangornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    201514400002
    [7] † Zhongornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    153979200002
    [8] † Sapeornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    8016716500002
    [9] † Didactylornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    177716800002
    [10] † Confuciusornis sanctus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    3121621400002
    [11] † Changchengornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    14410310100002
    [12] † Eoconfuciusornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12712111800002
    [13] † Jinzhouornis zhangjiyingia
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12313212200002
    [14] † Confuciusornis dui
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    180726500002
    [15] † Chaoyangia
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    222292300002
    [16] † Zhongjianornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    155969000002
    [17] † Boluochia
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    207443800002
    [18] † Shenqiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13811010700002
    [19] † Cathyaornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12512712000002
    [20] † Concornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    154959100002
    [21] † Elsornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    170827500002
    [22] † Eoalulavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    159868600002
    [23] † Eocathayornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    182656300002
    [24] † Eoenantiornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1501029500002
    [25] † Gobipteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    153999200002
    [26] † Iberomesornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    180706500002
    [27] † Longipteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10214914300002
    [28] † Longirostravis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    14011310500002
    [29] † Neuquenornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    176726900002
    [30] † Otogornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    220262500002
    [31] † Pengornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13312111200002
    [32] † Protopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1511009400002
    [33] † Rapaxavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    11613512900002
    [34] † Shanweiniao
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    170887500002
    [35] † Vescornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13412111100002
    [36] † Vorona
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    205414000002
    [37] † Eoornithura
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10915313600002
    [38] † Jianchangornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    13411811100002
    [39] † Archaeorhynchus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    12313012200002
    [40] † Liaoningornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    220292500002
    [41] † Songlingornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    219272600002
    [42] † Ambiortus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    209383600002
    [43] † Longicrusavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    11113813400002
    [44] † Apsaravis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10414514100002
    [45] † Hongshanornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    1481019700002
    [46] † Yanornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    9815114700002
    [47] † Patagopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10114514400002
    [48] † Hollanda
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    209393600002
    [49] † Yixianornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    9415315100002
    [50] † Gansus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    7816916700002
    [51] † Ichthyornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    5219619300002
    [52] † Hesperornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    7417117100002
    [53] † Parahesperornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    156898900002
    [54] † Enaliornis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    201444400002
    [55] † Baptornis advenus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    10214414300002
    [56] † Baptornis varneri
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    191545400002
    [57] † Limenavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    219262600002
    [58] † Vegavis
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    199484600002
    [59] Anas
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    524024000002
    [60] Gallus
    Last Modified in 04/01/20
    524024000002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views1787
    Project overview142
    Matrix views117Morphological matrix of the paper by O’Connor & Zhou 2013 (prepared by MorphoBank curators from original submission) (19 views); Matrix landing page (98 views);
    Views for media list88
    Documents list88
    Media views310Media search (264 views); M687273 (46 views);
    Taxon list755
    Bibliography59
    Specimen list228




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project31
    Project downloads27
    Media downloads2M687273 (2 downloads);
    Matrix downloads2Morphological matrix of the paper by O’Connor & Zhou 2013 (prepared by MorphoBank curators from original submission) (2 downloads);