Project 374: F. G. Marx. 2010. The more the merrier? A large cladistic analysis of mysticetes, and comments on the transition from teeth to baleen. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 18 (2):77-100.
Specimen: Megaptera novaeangliae (unvouchered)

Abstract

The origin of baleen whales, and their specialized mode of filter-feeding, marks an important event in the evolutionary history of mammals that gave rise to one of the most distinctive groups of animals alive today. Recent years have seen the description of a number of important new specimens, as well as the publication of a large number of phylogenetic analyses. Yet, despite this great effort, a broad consensus on even the most fundamental relationships within this group has so far remained elusive, a fact perhaps most strikingly reflected in the ongoing debate regarding the taxonomic placement of the extant gray and pygmy right whales, as well as the question of the relative closeness of relationship of all the extant members of the mysticete crown group. Here, I present the taxonomically most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of extinct and extant baleen whales carried out to date, based on morphological data and utilizing both maximum parsimony and Bayesian methodologies. The results of this study were well-resolved and consistent across methodologies. Apart from recovering a clade comprising the pygmy right whale, gray whales and rorquals, a grouping new to morphological analyses but supported by a number of molecular studies, this investigation also revealed the former clade to be more closely related to a large number of extinct ‘cetotheres’ than to right whales, thus contradicting previous notions of a closely related mysticete crown group. In addition, this analysis also identified a novel clade comprising nearly all the described archaic toothed mysticetes from the late Oligocene (about 23-28 Ma) to the exclusion of all toothless mysticetes. This finding is consistent with a basic assessment of the functional morphology of toothed mysticete vision, and may have implications for the evolution of mysticete filter-feeding and the recently proposed interpretation of some of these archaic taxa as transitional forms possessing both teeth and baleen at the same time.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P374, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P374
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 56 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 150 Characters


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Total scored cells: 5809
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 150
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 364
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:150/0
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MorphoBank Project 374


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Felix Marx
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/30/10
    5600150005809
    (5809, 0, 0)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 03/12/12
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M861' (56 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Zygorhiza kochii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2212812800002
    [2] Patriocetus ehrlichii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    73777700002
    [3] Physeter catodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1413613600002
    [4] Aetiocetus cotylalveus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    56949400002
    [5] Aetiocetus polydentatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    58929200002
    [6] Aetiocetus weltoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3911111100002
    [7] Aglaocetus moreni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    58929200002
    [8] Aglaocetus patulus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5010010000002
    [9] Archaebalaenoptera castriarquati
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    71797900002
    [10] Aulocetus latus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    69818100002
    [11] Balaena ricei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    92585800002
    [12] Balaena mysticetus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    314714700002
    [13] Balaenella brachyrhynus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    67838300002
    [14] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    015015000002
    [15] Balaenoptera bonaerensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    514514500002
    [16] Balaenoptera borealis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    015015000002
    [17] Balaenoptera edeni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1613413400002
    [18] Balaenoptera musculus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    015015000002
    [19] Balaenoptera omurai
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2812212200002
    [20] Balaenoptera physalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    015015000002
    [21] Balaenoptera siberi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4110910900002
    [22] Balaenula astensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    60909000002
    [23] Caperea marginata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    414614600002
    [24] Cephalotropis nectus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    79717100002
    [25] Cetotherium megalophysum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    105454500002
    [26] Cetotherium rathkei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    57939300002
    [27] Chonecetus goedertorum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3411611600002
    [28] Cophocetus oregonensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4110910900002
    [29] Diorocetus chichibuensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51999900002
    [30] Diorocetus hiatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2712312300002
    [31] Eomysticetus whitmorei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4810210200002
    [32] Eschrichtioides gastaldii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    56949400002
    [33] Eschrichtius robustus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    114914900002
    [34] Eubalaena glacialis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    314714700002
    [35] Eubalaena shinshuensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    89616100002
    [36] Herpetocetus transatlanticus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    94565600002
    [37] Isanacetus laticephalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3911111100002
    [38] Janjucetus hunderi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4510510500002
    [39] Mammalodon colliveri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5010010000002
    [40] Mauicetus lophocephalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    89616100002
    [41] Megaptera hubachi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3911111100002
    [42] Megaptera miocaena
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    63878700002
    [43] Megaptera novaeangliae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    015015000002
    [44] Metopocetus durinasus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    114363600002
    [45] Metopocetus vandelli
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    82686800002
    [46] Mixocetus elysius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    57939300002
    [47] Nannocetus eremus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    110404000002
    [48] Parabalaenoptera baulinensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    59919100002
    [49] Parietobalaena palmeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2812212200002
    [50] Parietobalaena yamaokai
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4610410400002
    [51] Pelocetus calvertensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3211811800002
    [52] Pinocetus polonicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55959500002
    [53] Piscobalaena nana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2612412400002
    [54] Protororqualus cuvierii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4910110100002
    [55] Titanocetus sammarinensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    56949400002
    [56] Uranocetus gramensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4110910900002


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