Project 3760: J. Wang, J. R. Wible, B. Guo, S. L. Shelley, H. Hu, S. Bi. 2021. A monotreme-like auditory apparatus in a Middle Jurassic haramiyidan. Nature. 590 (7845):279-283.
Specimen: † Vilevolodon diplomylos
View: reconstruction

Abstract

Among extant vertebrates, mammals are distinguished by having a chain of three auditory ossicles (malleus, incus and stapes) that transduce sound waves and promote an increased range of audible, especially high frequencies1. In contrast, the homologous bones in early fossil mammals and relatives also functioned in chewing through their bony attachments to the lower jaw2 (Fig. 1a,b). Recent discoveries of well-preserved Mesozoic mammals have provided glimpses into the transition from the dual (masticatory and auditory) to the single auditory function for the ossicles, which is now widely accepted to have occurred at least three times in mammal evolution3–6. Here we report a new haramiyidan from the Middle Jurassic (160 my) with remarkable preservation of the malleus, incus and ectotympanic (which supports the tympanic membrane) (Fig. 2) and compare it with other Mesozoic and extant mammals. We propose that the overlapping incudomallear articulation found in this and other Mesozoic fossils, in extant monotremes, and in early ontogeny in extant marsupials and placentals is a novel morphology that evolved in multiple groups of mammals in the transition from the dual to single function for the ossicles.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03137-z

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3760, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3760
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 1 Document
  • 134 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 990 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 463.79k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 66784
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 1018
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 2754
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:1018/0
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MorphoBank Project 3760

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of New England

    • Yunnan University

    • Carnegie Museum of Natural History

    • Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    • Inner Mongolia Museum of Natural History



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    comms
       
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Shundong Bi
    Project Administrator
    1341153700033392
    (33384, 0, 8)
    000
    John Wible
    Full membership
    00000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27089' (130 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Thrinaxodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18032932900002
    [2] Massetognathus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    24526426400002
    [3] Probainognathus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26624324300002
    [4] Tritylodontids
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14037236900002
    [5] Pachygenelus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20930030000002
    [6] Adelobasileus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    418919100002
    [7] Sinoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    16934134000002
    [8] Morganucodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    11640139300002
    [9] Megazostrodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14536436400002
    [10] Haldanodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18832132100002
    [11] Castorocauda
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28622322300002
    [12] Eleutherodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    452575700002
    [13] Sineleutherus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    456545300002
    [14] Millsodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    483262600002
    [15] Thomasia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    445646400002
    [16] Haramiyavia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39111811800002
    [17] Adalatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26724324200002
    [18] Vintana
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36914014000002
    [19] Vilevolodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20330930600002
    [20] Maiopatagium furculiferum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32019018900002
    [21] Maiopatagium sibiricum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    485242400002
    [22] Cryoharamiya
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    493161600002
    [23] Cifelliodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39911011000002
    [24] Arboroharamiya jenkinsi
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33017917900002
    [25] Arboroharamiya allinhopsoni
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    24327126600002
    [26] Xianshou linglong
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28922222000002
    [27] Xianshou songae
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30021120900002
    [28] Shenshou
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23927227000002
    [29] Sharypovoia arimasporum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    454555500002
    [30] Sharypovoia magna
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    493161600002
    [31] Qishou
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23228027700002
    [32] Rugosodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25725225200002
    [33] Kuehneodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    37413613500002
    [34] Sinobaatar
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23327727600002
    [35] Jeholbaatar
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20930030000002
    [36] Plagiaulacids
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26924524000002
    [37] Cimolodontans
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10343540600002
    [38] Hadrocodium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25025925900002
    [39] Shuotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    38612312300002
    [40] Pseudotribos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    31519419400002
    [41] Asfaltomylos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    410999900002
    [42] Ambondro
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    431787800002
    [43] Ausktribosphenos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39311611600002
    [44] Bishops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39311611600002
    [45] Teinolophos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39611411300002
    [46] Steropodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    436737300002
    [47] Obdurodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26824124100002
    [48] Ornithorhynchus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    13737637200002
    [49] Tachyglossus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18932232000002
    [50] Fruitafossor
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32018918900002
    [51] Gobiconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    13437637500002
    [52] Repenomamus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    12638338300002
    [53] Amphilestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610310300002
    [54] Yanoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21229729700002
    [55] Liaoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    19631931300002
    [56] Jeholodens
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    19231731700002
    [57] Trioracodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35115915800002
    [58] Priacodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30720320200002
    [59] Tinodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610410300002
    [60] Akidolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21229729700002
    [61] Spalacotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35115815800002
    [62] Zhangheotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14936036000002
    [63] Origolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10541740400002
    [64] Maotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14736436200002
    [65] Dryolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32918018000002
    [66] Henkelotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25925025000002
    [67] Amphitherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36214714700002
    [68] Peramus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    34117016800002
    [69] Vincelestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10041140900002
    [70] Nanolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35815115100002
    [71] Kielantherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36114614503002
    [72] Aegialodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    449606000002
    [73] Montanalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39111811800002
    [74] Prokennalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28722422200002
    [75] Murtoilestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    416939300002
    [76] Eomaia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17833133100002
    [77] Juramaia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    31119319305002
    [78] Kennalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20230930700002
    [79] Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    12538438400002
    [80] Ukhaatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20730230200002
    [81] Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8343442600002
    [82] Daulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26424624500002
    [83] Aspanlestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36514414400002
    [84] Eoungulatum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    38412512500002
    [85] Cimolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33517417400002
    [86] Gypsonictops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33817117100002
    [87] Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28322722600002
    [88] Erinaceus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4646446300002
    [89] Leptictis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8142842800002
    [90] Canis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    5645445300002
    [91] Felis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    6144844800002
    [92] Rattus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10540440400002
    [93] Oryctolagus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    9241741700002
    [94] Bradypus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17833233100002
    [95] Tamandua
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21329629600002
    [96] Glyptotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18632332300002
    [97] Dasypus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17333733600002
    [98] Chaetophractus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17433733500002
    [99] Euphractus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17433733500002
    [100] Holoclemensia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610310300002
    [101] Sinodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25026025900002
    [102] Ambolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18632332300002
    [103] Deltatheridium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    22029128900002
    [104] Atokatheridium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    413969600002
    [105] Sulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32318618600002
    [106] Asiatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18532532400002
    [107] Kokopellia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35815215100002
    [108] Anchistodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    413969600002
    [109] Albertatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    449606000002
    [110] Didelphodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    27123823800002
    [111] Pediomys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30420520500002
    [112] Turgidodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32518418400002
    [113] Mayulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10840140100002
    [114] Pucadelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8642342300002
    [115] Andinodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20430530500002
    [116] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4346846600002
    [117] Marmosa
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4246746700002
    [118] Caenolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7543443400002
    [119] Dasyurus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4746346200002
    [120] Perameles
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7043943900002
    [121] Dromiciops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    5045945900002
    [122] Thylacomyidae
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    15135835800002
    [123] Macropus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7743443200002
    [124] Acrobates
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7843143100002
    [125] Phascolarctos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7943043000002
    [126] Vombatus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8042942900002
    [127] Phalanger
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7443543500002
    [128] Pseudocheirus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7643343300002
    [129] Petauroides
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7643343300002
    [130] Volaticotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36414814500002


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M29186' (130 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Thrinaxodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18032932900002
    [2] Massetognathus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    24526426400002
    [3] Probainognathus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26624324300002
    [4] Tritylodontids
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14037236900002
    [5] Pachygenelus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20930030000002
    [6] Adelobasileus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    418919100002
    [7] Sinoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    16934134000002
    [8] Morganucodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    11640139300002
    [9] Megazostrodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14536436400002
    [10] Haldanodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18832132100002
    [11] Castorocauda
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28622322300002
    [12] Eleutherodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    452575700002
    [13] Sineleutherus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    456545300002
    [14] Millsodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    483262600002
    [15] Thomasia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    445646400002
    [16] Haramiyavia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39111811800002
    [17] Adalatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26724324200002
    [18] Vintana
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36914014000002
    [19] Vilevolodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20330930600002
    [20] Maiopatagium furculiferum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32019018900002
    [21] Maiopatagium sibiricum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    485242400002
    [22] Cryoharamiya
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    493161600002
    [23] Cifelliodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39911011000002
    [24] Arboroharamiya jenkinsi
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33017917900002
    [25] Arboroharamiya allinhopsoni
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    24327126600002
    [26] Xianshou linglong
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28922222000002
    [27] Xianshou songae
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30021120900002
    [28] Shenshou
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23927227000002
    [29] Sharypovoia arimasporum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    454555500002
    [30] Sharypovoia magna
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    493161600002
    [31] Qishou
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23228027700002
    [32] Rugosodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25725225200002
    [33] Kuehneodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    37413613500002
    [34] Sinobaatar
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    23327727600002
    [35] Jeholbaatar
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20930030000002
    [36] Plagiaulacids
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26924524000002
    [37] Cimolodontans
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10343540600002
    [38] Hadrocodium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25025925900002
    [39] Shuotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    38612312300002
    [40] Pseudotribos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    31519419400002
    [41] Asfaltomylos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    410999900002
    [42] Ambondro
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    431787800002
    [43] Ausktribosphenos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39311611600002
    [44] Bishops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39311611600002
    [45] Teinolophos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39611411300002
    [46] Steropodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    436737300002
    [47] Obdurodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26824124100002
    [48] Ornithorhynchus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    13737637200002
    [49] Tachyglossus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18932232000002
    [50] Fruitafossor
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32018918900002
    [51] Gobiconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    13437637500002
    [52] Repenomamus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    12638338300002
    [53] Amphilestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610310300002
    [54] Yanoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21229729700002
    [55] Liaoconodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    19631931300002
    [56] Jeholodens
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    19231731700002
    [57] Trioracodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35115915800002
    [58] Priacodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30720320200002
    [59] Tinodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610410300002
    [60] Akidolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21229729700002
    [61] Spalacotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35115815800002
    [62] Zhangheotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14936036000002
    [63] Origolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10541740400002
    [64] Maotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    14736436200002
    [65] Dryolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32918018000002
    [66] Henkelotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25925025000002
    [67] Amphitherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36214714700002
    [68] Peramus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    34117016800002
    [69] Vincelestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10041140900002
    [70] Nanolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35815115100002
    [71] Kielantherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36114614503002
    [72] Aegialodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    449606000002
    [73] Montanalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    39111811800002
    [74] Prokennalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28722422200002
    [75] Murtoilestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    416939300002
    [76] Eomaia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17833133100002
    [77] Juramaia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    31119319305002
    [78] Kennalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20230930700002
    [79] Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    12538438400002
    [80] Ukhaatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20730230200002
    [81] Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8343442600002
    [82] Daulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    26424624500002
    [83] Aspanlestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36514414400002
    [84] Eoungulatum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    38412512500002
    [85] Cimolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33517417400002
    [86] Gypsonictops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    33817117100002
    [87] Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    28322722600002
    [88] Erinaceus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4646446300002
    [89] Leptictis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8142842800002
    [90] Canis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    5645445300002
    [91] Felis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    6144844800002
    [92] Rattus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10540440400002
    [93] Oryctolagus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    9241741700002
    [94] Bradypus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17833233100002
    [95] Tamandua
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    21329629600002
    [96] Glyptotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18632332300002
    [97] Dasypus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17333733600002
    [98] Chaetophractus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17433733500002
    [99] Euphractus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    17433733500002
    [100] Holoclemensia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    40610310300002
    [101] Sinodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    25026025900002
    [102] Ambolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18632332300002
    [103] Deltatheridium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    22029128900002
    [104] Atokatheridium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    413969600002
    [105] Sulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32318618600002
    [106] Asiatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    18532532400002
    [107] Kokopellia
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    35815215100002
    [108] Anchistodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    413969600002
    [109] Albertatherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    449606000002
    [110] Didelphodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    27123823800002
    [111] Pediomys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    30420520500002
    [112] Turgidodon
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    32518418400002
    [113] Mayulestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    10840140100002
    [114] Pucadelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8642342300002
    [115] Andinodelphys
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    20430530500002
    [116] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4346846600002
    [117] Marmosa
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4246746700002
    [118] Caenolestes
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7543443400002
    [119] Dasyurus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    4746346200002
    [120] Perameles
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7043943900002
    [121] Dromiciops
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    5045945900002
    [122] Thylacomyidae
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    15135835800002
    [123] Macropus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7743443200002
    [124] Acrobates
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7843143100002
    [125] Phascolarctos
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7943043000002
    [126] Vombatus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    8042942900002
    [127] Phalanger
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7443543500002
    [128] Pseudocheirus
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7643343300002
    [129] Petauroides
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    7643343300002
    [130] Volaticotherium
    Last Modified in 03/07/23
    36414814500002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views16349
    Project overview1293
    Matrix views829Matrix landing page (650 views); A monotreme-like auditory apparatus in a Middle Jurassic haramiyidan (160 views); Complete data matrix with full character names and state labels - curated by MorphoBank based on author's files (19 views);
    Specimen list1199
    Taxon list9100
    Bibliography450
    Media views2243Media search (1896 views); M737894 (347 views);
    Views for media list705
    Documents list530




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project106
    Matrix downloads32A monotreme-like auditory apparatus in a Middle Jurassic haramiyidan (25 downloads); Complete data matrix with full character names and state labels - curated by MorphoBank based on author's files (7 downloads);
    Project downloads68
    Media downloads3M737894 (3 downloads);
    Document downloads3Complete character list in pdf format (3 downloads);