Project 3773: Martín D. Ezcurra, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Mario Bronzati, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Federico L. Agnolin, Roger B. J. Benson, Federico Brissón Egli, Sérgio F. Cabreira, Serjoscha W. Evers, Adriel R. Gentil, Randall B. Irmis, Agustín G. Martinelli, Fernando E. Novas, Lúcio Roberto da Silva, Nathan D. Smith, Michelle R. Stocker, Alan H. Turner, Max C. Langer. 2020. Enigmatic dinosaur precursors bridge the gap to the origin of Pterosauria. Nature. (In Press)
Specimen: † Ixalerpeton polesinensis (unvouchered)
View: Several views of reconstructed skull

Abstract

Pterosaurs −the flying reptiles− were the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight1 and one of the main evolutionary radiations in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems (c. 252−66 Ma), but their origin has remained one of the most outstanding enigmas in palaeontology since the 19th Century2−4. They have been hypothesised as close relatives of a wide variety of reptilian clades, including dinosaur relatives2−8, and there is still a major morphological gap between those forms and the oldest, unambiguous pterosaurs from the Upper Triassic. Driven by recent discoveries of well-preserved cranial remains, μCT scans of fragile skull bones (jaws, braincases), and reliably associated postcrania, we demonstrate that lagerpetids, a group of cursorial, non-volant dinosaur precursors, are the sister group of pterosaurs, sharing numerous synapomorphies across the entire skeleton. This finding substantially shortens the temporal and morphological gap between the oldest pterosaurs and their closest relatives, simultaneously strengthening the evidence that pterosaurs belong to the avian-line of archosaurs. Neuroanatomical features related to the enhanced sensory capabilities of pterosaurs9 are already present in lagerpetids, indicating that they evolved before flight. Our new evidence illuminates the first steps of the assembly of the unique pterosaur body plan, whose conquest of aerial space represents one of the most astonishing morphofunctional innovations in vertebrate evolution.


Project DOI: 10.7934/P3773, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3773
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 5 Documents
  • 194 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 823 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 10.11M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 67360
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 823
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 2022
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:716/107
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MorphoBank Project 3773

    Authors' Institutions

    • Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Humboldt University Berlin)

    • University of Goettingen



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    Martin Ezcurra
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/16/20
    194110823000067360
    (60572, 0, 6788)
    0686000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26833' (194 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    [1] † Petrolacosaurus kansensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    105621603099001
    [2] † Acerosodontosaurus piveteaui
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    531231224062001
    [3] † Youngina capensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    101638591089001
    [4] † Paliguana whitei
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    692103101028001
    [5] † Planocephalosaurus robinsonae
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    269462449094001
    [6] † Gephyrosaurus bridensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    251498469079001
    [7] † Cteniogenys sp
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    459313306056001
    [8] † Simoedosaurus lemoinei
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    185560554083001
    [9] † Aenigmastropheus parringtoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    778454301001
    [10] † Protorosaurus speneri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    223536487078001
    [11] † Dinocephalosaurus orientalis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    403327323097001
    [12] † Amotosaurus rotfeldensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    424345337060001
    [13] † Macrocnemus bassanii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    269478445081001
    [14] † Macrocnemus obristi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7297675019001
    [15] † Macrocnemus fuyuanensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    345407399079001
    [16] † Fuyuansaurus acutirostris
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    663137133026001
    [17] † Pectodens zhenyuensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    506256247070001
    [18] † Augustaburiania vatagini
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    737797907001
    [19] † Protanystropheus antiquus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    802222001001
    [20] † Trachelosaurus fischeri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7289180015001
    [21] † Tanystropheus longobardicus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    1066285700106001
    [22] † Tanystropheus haasi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    812101001001
    [23] † Langobadisaurus pandolfii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    475294280067001
    [24] † Tanytrachelos ahynis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    451331310062001
    [25] † Jesairosaurus lehmani
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    410346329078001
    [26] † Pamelaria dolichotrachela
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    198568563062001
    [27] † Azendohsaurus madagaskarensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    87670659072001
    [28] † Azendohsaurus laaroussi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7456867011001
    [29] † Shringasaurus indicus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    376402394053001
    [30] † Malerisaurus robinsonae
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    488312300035001
    [31] † Trilophosaurus buettneri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    103634600092001
    [32] † Spinosuchus caseanus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    418342338067001
    [33] † Teraterpeton hrynewichorum
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    378372368077001
    [34] † Arctosaurus osborni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    809131301001
    [35] † Noteosuchus colletti
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    604202190020001
    [36] † Mesosuchus browni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    80668635079001
    [37] † Howesia browni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    396390363043001
    [38] † Eohyosaurus wolvaardti
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    645163156021001
    [39] † Rhynchosaurus articeps
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    210536521081001
    [40] † Bentonyx sidensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    531237236056001
    [41] † Mesodapedon kuttyi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7753838010001
    [42] † Ammorhynchus navajoi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7524847024001
    [43] † Stenaulorhynchus stockleyi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    145599597081001
    [44] † Brasinorhynchus mariantensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    487286283053001
    [45] † Chanares rhynchosaur
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7664946011001
    [46] † Langeronyx brodiei
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    635145144044001
    [47] † Fodonyx spenceri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    662140140021001
    [48] † Isalorhynchus genovefae
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    231523519071001
    [49] † Hyperodapedon gordoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    123611606094001
    [50] † Hyperodapedon huxleyi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    120611609094001
    [51] † Teyumbaita sulcognathus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    246497494083001
    [52] † Eorasaurus olsoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    794292602001
    [53] † Prolacertoides jimusarensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7197472031001
    [54] † Prolacerta broomi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    38725679073001
    [55] † K australiensis combined
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    691105100032001
    [56] † Boreopricea funerea
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    455325300050001
    [57] † Teyujagua paradoxa
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    508262260055001
    [58] † Antarctanax shackletoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    751676206001
    [59] † Archosaurus rossicus holotype
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    801212101001
    [60] † Archosaurus complete
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7221039902001
    [61] † Proterosuchus fergusi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    177622607037001
    [62] † Proterosuchus goweri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    529282278016001
    [63] † Proterosuchus alexanderi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    256528524042001
    [64] † Chasmatosaurus yuani
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    192594580050001
    [65] † Panchet proterosuchid
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    636183173014001
    [66] † Tasmaniosaurus triassicus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    690126119014001
    [67] † Vonhuenia fredericki
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    799212103001
    [68] † C rossicus combined
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    775464503001
    [69] † C magnus combined
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    793292802001
    [70] † Chasmatosuchus vjushkovi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    796282601001
    [71] † Koilamasuchus gonzalezdiazi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    790322904001
    [72] † Kalisuchus rewanensis holotype
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7684843012001
    [73] † NMQR 3570
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7773535011001
    [74] † Fugusuchus hejiapanensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    580224221021001
    [75] † Sarmatosuchus otschevi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    557264256010001
    [76] † Guchengosuchus shiguaiensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    599206198026001
    [77] † Cuyosuchus huenei
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    613209198012001
    [78] † Garjainia prima
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    155633627040001
    [79] † Garjainia madiba combined
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    433381362022001
    [80] † Erythrosuchus africanus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    95685672048001
    [81] † Shansisuchus shansisuchus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    219566558045001
    [82] † Shansisuchus kuyeheensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7239488012001
    [83] † Chalishevia cothurnata
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    707108105011001
    [84] † Youngosuchus sinensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    446363356021001
    [85] † Uralosaurus combined
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    783343307001
    [86] † Vancleavea campi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    265491486070001
    [87] † Litorosuchus somnii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    343454448032001
    [88] † Asperoris mnyama
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    698117102017001
    [89] † Euparkeria capensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    48753741034001
    [90] † Dorosuchus neoetus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    69812212203001
    [91] † Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    719969509001
    [92] † Osmolskina czatkoviensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    792242407001
    [93] † Osmolskina complete
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    335470460028001
    [94] † Yarasuchus deccanensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    590223219013001
    [95] † Dongusuchus efremovi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    781404002001
    [96] † Teleocrater rhadinus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    486319318019001
    [97] † Spondylosoma absconditum
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    737838204001
    [98] † Proterochampsa barrionuevoi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    271506497055001
    [99] † Proterochampsa nodosa
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    570234228020001
    [100] † Tropidosuchus romeri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    178613598040001
    [101] † Cerritosaurus binsfeldi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    568235230025001
    [102] † Gualosuchus reigi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    262523514045001
    [103] † Chanaresuchus bonapartei
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    98687672049001
    [104] † Pseudochampsa ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    354439433036001
    [105] † Rhadinosuchus gracilis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    689128121013001
    [106] † Archeopelta arborensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    70611311304001
    [107] † Tarjadia ruthae
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    299498494030001
    [108] † Pagosvenator candelariensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    64517617503001
    [109] † Erpetosuchus granti
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    450348344027001
    [110] † Erpetosuchus sp
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7189994011001
    [111] † Dyoplax arenaceus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    763595703001
    [112] † Jaxtasuchus salomoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    596216208019001
    [113] † Doswellia kaltenbachi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    407368362054001
    [114] † Triopticus primus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7181029307001
    [115] † Parasuchus angustifrons
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    542251248033001
    [116] † Parasuchus hislopi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    112678669040001
    [117] † Nicrosaurus kapffi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    271513505046001
    [118] † Smilosuchus spp.
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    139638624054001
    [119] † Diandongosuchus fuyuanensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    347453451025001
    [120] † Wannia scurriensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    613185173032001
    [121] † Ebrachosuchus neukami
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    505286282035001
    [122] † Paleorhinus sawini
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    542256252029001
    [123] † Angistorhinus talainti
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    473316313037001
    [124] † Mystriosuchus planirostris
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    327474455041001
    [125] † Machaeroprosopus pristinus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    347447428048001
    [126] † Redondasaurus spp
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    473323311039001
    [127] † Ornithosuchus woodwardi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    258534527034001
    [128] † Riojasuchus tenuisceps
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    132656644041001
    [129] † Venaticosuchus rusconii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    625182179019001
    [130] † Dynamosuchus collisensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    54128227903001
    [131] † Nundasuchus songeaensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    528287282013001
    [132] † Turfanosuchus dabanensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    263537530028001
    [133] † Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    156639627040001
    [134] † Yonghesuchus sangbiensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    611195192020001
    [135] † Parringtonia gracilis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    340461455028001
    [136] † Otter sandstone archosaur
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    772544803001
    [137] † Aetosauroides scagliai
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    264539529029001
    [138] † Aetosaurus ferratus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    219570565039001
    [139] † Stagonolepis robertsoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    96686686041001
    [140] † Ticinosuchus ferox
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    489318311022001
    [141] † Prestosuchus nyassicus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    65616515908001
    [142] † Dagasuchus santacruzensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    792292902001
    [143] † Qianosuchus mixtus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    321472470032001
    [144] † Arizonasaurus babbitti
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    375414409039001
    [145] † Lotosaurus adentus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    317432426080001
    [146] † Ctenosauriscus koeneni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7733434016001
    [147] † Hypselorhachis mirabilis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    796262502001
    [148] † Waldhaus poposauroid
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    789343301001
    [149] † Vytshegdosuchus zbeshartensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    8139901001
    [150] † Bystrowisuchus flerovi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    805191602001
    [151] † Bromsgroveia walkeri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    782404001001
    [152] † Xilousuchus sapingensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    580225224018001
    [153] † Moenkopi poposauroid
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    777444006001
    [154] † Mandasuchus tanyauchen
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    527283278018001
    [155] † Luperosuchus fractus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    69912312103001
    [156] † Decuriasuchus quartacolonia
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    383413408032001
    [157] † Batrachotomus kupferzellensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    168626617034001
    [158] † Prestosuchus chiniquensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    90703698035001
    [159] † Scleromochlus taylori
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    634171160029001
    [160] † Austriadraco dallavecchiai
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    640184171012001
    [161] † Preondactylus buffarinii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    570215210041001
    [162] † Austriadactylus cristatus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    591207202030001
    [163] † Seazzadactylus venieri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    558229220045001
    [164] † Raeticodactylus filisurensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    576226218029001
    [165] † Carniadactylus rosenfeldi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    481283277065001
    [166] † Peteinosaurus zambellii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    582210204037001
    [167] † Caelestiventus hanseni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    644147143036001
    [168] † Dimorphodon macronyx
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    353407403067001
    [169] † Eudimorphodon ranzii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    487298295041001
    [170] † Rhamphorhynchus muensteri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    1685385310124001
    [171] † Cacibupteryx caribensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    657141138027001
    [172] † Allkaruen koi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    690123121012001
    [173] † Lagerpeton chanarensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    533259254034001
    [174] † Ixalerpeton polesinensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    451344338034001
    [175] † Kongonaphon kely
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    7417470012001
    [176] † PVSJ 883
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    8139901001
    [177] † Dromomeron romeri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    651151143029001
    [178] † Dromomeron gregorii
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    68413513504001
    [179] † Dromomeron gigas
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    787313105001
    [180] † Lagosuchus talampayensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    409386379035001
    [181] † Lutungutali sitwensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    786393403001
    [182] † Asilisaurus kongwe
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    312484476035001
    [183] † Nyasasaurus parringtoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    772494803001
    [184] † Lewisuchus admixtus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    277525511029001
    [185] † Silesaurus opolensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    175612602045001
    [186] † Heterodontosaurus tucki
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    88654648083001
    [187] † Lesothosaurus diagnosticus
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    99656648075001
    [188] † Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    72706695056001
    [189] † Eoraptor lunensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    164617613046001
    [190] † Buriolestes schultzi
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    106666659056001
    [191] † Saturnalia tupiniquim
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    305476468049001
    [192] † Tawa hallae
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    211554554058001
    [193] † Coelophysis bauri
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    63695689071001
    [194] † Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/20
    83674668072001


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    Total project views10
    Project overview8
    Matrix views1Matrix landing page (1 view);
    Media views1Media search (1 view);




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project2
    Matrix downloads2Cladistic matrix discrete characters TNT (2 downloads);