Project 3804: K. Braun, F. Leubner, T. Stach. 2020. Phylogenetic analysis of phenotypic characters of Tunicata supports basal Appendicularia and monophyletic Ascidiacea. Cladistics. 36 (3):259-300.
Specimen: Herdmania momus (unvouchered)
View: whole organism

Abstract

With approximately 3000 marine species, Tunicata represents the most disparate subtaxon of Chordata. Molecular phylogenetic studies support Tunicata as sister taxon to Craniota, rendering it pivotal to understanding craniate evolution. Although successively more molecular data have become available to resolve internal tunicate phylogenetic relationships, phenotypic data have not been utilized consistently. Herein these shortcomings are addressed by cladistically analyzing 117 phenotypic characters for 49 tunicate species comprising all higher tunicate taxa, and five craniate and cephalochordate outgroup species. In addition, a combined analysis of the phenotypic characters with 18S rDNA‐sequence data is performed in 32 OTUs. The analysis of the combined data is congruent with published molecular analyses. Successively up‐weighting phenotypic characters indicates that phenotypic data contribute disproportionally more to the resulting phylogenetic hypothesis. The strict consensus tree from the analysis of the phenotypic characters as well as the single most parsimonious tree found in the analysis of the combined dataset recover monophyletic Appendicularia as sister taxon to the remaining tunicate taxa. Thus, both datasets support the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of Tunicata was free‐living and that ascidian sessility is a derived trait within Tunicata. “Thaliacea” is found to be paraphyletic with Pyrosomatida as sister taxon to monophyletic Ascidiacea and the relationship between Doliolida and Salpida is unresolved in the analysis of morphological characters; however, the analysis of the combined data reconstructs Thaliacea as monophyletic nested within paraphyletic “Ascidiacea”. Therefore, both datasets differ in the interpretation of the evolution of the complex holoplanktonic life history of thaliacean taxa. According to the phenotypic data, this evolution occurred in the plankton, whereas from the combined dataset a secondary transition into the plankton from a sessile ascidian is inferred. Besides these major differences, both analyses are in accord on many phylogenetic groupings, although both phylogenetic reconstructions invoke a high degree of homoplasy. In conclusion, this study represents the first serious attempt to utilize the potential phylogenetic information present in phenotypic characters to elucidate the inter‐relationships of this diverse marine taxon in a consistent cladistic framework.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/cla.12405

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3804, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3804
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 54 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 117 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 50.36k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 5627
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 117
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 256
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:117/0
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MorphoBank Project 3804
  • Creation Date:
    09 September 2020
  • Publication Date:
    09 September 2020
  • Project views: 571

    Authors' Institutions

    • Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Humboldt University Berlin)

    • University of Goettingen



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/09/20
    5411117005627
    (4449, 0, 1178)
    000
    Thomas Stach
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26918' (54 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Oikopleura fusiformes
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    107272035002
    [2] Oikopleura dioica
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    18080036002
    [3] Megalocercus huxleyi
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    107171036002
    [4] Fritillaria borealis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    107272035002
    [5] Salpa fusiformis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    38483031002
    [6] Thalia democratica
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    18885031002
    [7] Iasis cylindrica
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    38683031002
    [8] Doliolum nationalis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    28685030002
    [9] Doliolum denticulatum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    177373027002
    [10] Pyrosoma atlanticum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    29090025002
    [11] Ascidiella aspersa
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    49494019002
    [12] Ascidiella scabra
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    29696019002
    [13] Ascidia mentula
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    59191021002
    [14] Ascidia virginea
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    227777018002
    [15] Corella parallelogramma
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    29393022002
    [16] Rhodosoma callense
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    267272019002
    [17] Phallusia mammillata
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    208079018002
    [18] Phallusia nigra
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    217978018002
    [19] Agnezia septentrionalis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    316766020002
    [20] Perophora japonica
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    99292016002
    [21] Perophora viridis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    228080015002
    [22] Ciona intestinalis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    09898019002
    [23] Dendrodoa grossularia
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    89191018002
    [24] Molgula retortiformis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    276666024002
    [25] Molgula citrina
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    237676018002
    [26] Molgula manhattensis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    09797020002
    [27] Microcosmus claudicans
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    247676017002
    [28] Styela clava
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    39696018002
    [29] Styela rustica
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    287171018002
    [30] Styela plicata
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    188282017002
    [31] Botryllus schlosseri
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    1104103013002
    [32] Symplegma brakenhielmi
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    128988017002
    [33] Halocynthia roretzi
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    198181017002
    [34] Herdmania momus
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    267474017002
    [35] Kukenthalia borealis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    228685010002
    [36] Pelonaia corrugata
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    237070024002
    [37] Diazona violacea
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    238282012002
    [38] Clavelina lepadiformis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    29595020002
    [39] Diplosoma listerianum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    19595021002
    [40] Didemnum maculosum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    227777018002
    [41] Lissoclinum verrilli
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    188181018002
    [42] Distaplia stylifera
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    109494013002
    [43] Eudistoma obscuratum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    128888017002
    [44] Polyclinum constellatum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    79494016002
    [45] Polyclinum aurantium
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    217878018002
    [46] Synoicum pulmonaria
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    257575017002
    [47] Aplidium turbinatum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    138585019002
    [48] Morchellium argus
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    237777017002
    [49] Sycozoa sigillinoides
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    247575018002
    [50] Branchiostoma floridae
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    78080030002
    [51] Branchiostoma lanceolatum
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    137474030002
    [52] Petromyzon marinus
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    77575035002
    [53] Lampetra planeri
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    97373035002
    [54] Lampetra fluviatilis
    Last Modified in 09/09/20
    117171035002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views571
    Project overview52
    Matrix views54Data matrix in Nexus format (26 views); Matrix landing page (28 views);
    Media views113Media search (97 views); M693787 (16 views);
    Taxon list243
    Specimen list51
    Bibliography23
    Views for media list35




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    Total downloads from project9
    Project downloads9