Project 383: M. Orliac,J.-R. Boisserie,L. MacLatchy,F. Lihoreau. 2010. Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (26):11871-11876.
Specimen: Morotochoerus ugandensis (UNM:MOR 177-178)

Abstract

The affinities of the Hippopotamidae are at the core of the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals: cetaceans, ruminants, camels, suoids, and hippos). Molecular phylogenies support Cetacea as sister group of the Hippopotamidae, implying a long ghost lineage between the earliest cetaceans (∼53 Ma) and the earliest hippopotamids (∼16 Ma). Morphological studies have proposed two different sister taxa for hippopotamids: suoids (notably palaeochoerids) or anthracotheriids. Evaluating these phylogenetic hypotheses requires substantiating the poorly known early history of the Hippopotamidae. Here, we undertake an original morphological phylogenetic analysis including several “suiform” families and previously unexamined early Miocene taxa to test previous conflicting hypotheses. According to our results, Morotochoerus ugandensis and Kulutherium rusingensis, until now regarded as the sole African palaeochoerid and the sole African bunodont anthracotheriid, respectively, are unambiguously includedwithin the Hippopotamidae. They are the earliest known hippopotamids and set the family fossil record back to the early Miocene (∼21 Ma). The analysis reveals that hippopotamids displayed
an unsuspected taxonomic and body size diversity and remained restricted to Africa during most of their history, until the latest Miocene. Our results also confirm the deep nesting of Hippopotamidae within the paraphyletic Anthracotheriidae; this finding allows us to reconstruct the sequence of dental innovations that links advanced selenodont anthracotheriids to hippopotamids, previously a source of major disagreements on hippopotamid origins. The analysis demonstrates a close relationship between Eocene choeropotamids and anthracotheriids, a relationship that potentially fills the evolutionary gap between earliest hippopotamids and cetaceans implied by molecular analyses.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P383, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P383
This project containsMatrices
  • 31 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 27 Taxa
  • 3 Specimens
  • 84 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 9 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2038
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 84
Total characters with associated media: 45
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 177
Total character states with associated media: 1
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:84/0
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MorphoBank Project 383

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    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
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    Maeva Orliac
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 01/21/11
    27330844602038
    (2001, 0, 37)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/12/11
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Jean-Renaud Boisserie
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/19/10
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Fabrice Lihoreau
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/10/10
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M874' (27 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    no cell
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Gujaratia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4797901004
    [2] Kenyapotamus ternani
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28565600004
    [3] Kenyapotamus coryndonae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1868300004
    [4] Hexaprotodon garyam
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0808004004
    [5] Hippopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0867806004
    [6] Choeropsis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0807905004
    [7] Morotochoerus ugandensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32515101004
    [8] Kulutherium rusingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    62222200004
    [9] Archaeopotamus lothagamensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39444401004
    [10] Archaeopotamus harvardi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4787703004
    [11] Palaeochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [12] Hyotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [13] Listriodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [14] Cynorca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7767601004
    [15] Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12727200004
    [16] Entelodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1808003004
    [17] Anthracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0858400004
    [18] Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [19] Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1848300004
    [20] Libycosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0818103004
    [21] Merycopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838202004
    [22] Siamotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [23] Microbunodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [24] Cebochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3828001004
    [25] Choeropotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9757500004
    [26] Khirtharia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21606003004
    [27] Gobiohyus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18656501004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views34218
    Taxon list6640
    Media views16533M55827 (417 views); M55443 (503 views); M55644 (410 views); M55829 (447 views); Media search (3171 views); M55441 (449 views); M55633 (414 views); M55830 (463 views); M55632 (416 views); M55635 (429 views); M55636 (446 views); M55637 (408 views); M55638 (423 views); M55640 (407 views); M55641 (428 views); M55643 (462 views); M55642 (439 views); M55645 (396 views); M55832 (405 views); M55834 (426 views); M55831 (411 views); M55836 (452 views); M55833 (442 views); M55839 (436 views); M55828 (433 views); M55837 (422 views); M55838 (394 views); M55835 (423 views); M55444 (431 views); M55634 (429 views); M86106 (437 views); M55639 (464 views);
    Project overview2610
    Matrix views1302Matrix landing page (1119 views); Hippopotamidae dental matrix (183 views);
    Specimen list3021
    Bibliography2293
    Views for media list875
    Documents list944




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project236
    Media downloads33M55827 (2 downloads); M55443 (2 downloads); M55830 (2 downloads); M55632 (1 download); M55633 (1 download); M55635 (1 download); M55636 (2 downloads); M55637 (1 download); M55638 (1 download); M55640 (1 download); M55641 (1 download); M55642 (1 download); M55643 (1 download); M55644 (1 download); M55645 (1 download); M55828 (1 download); M55829 (1 download); M55831 (1 download); M55832 (1 download); M55833 (1 download); M55834 (2 downloads); M55835 (1 download); M55836 (1 download); M55837 (1 download); M55838 (1 download); M55839 (1 download); M55441 (1 download); M55444 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads9Hippopotamidae dental matrix (9 downloads);
    Project downloads191
    Document downloads3Kulutherium rusingensis (2 downloads); Morotochoerus ugandensis (1 download);