Project 383: M. Orliac, J.-R. Boisserie, L. MacLatchy, F. Lihoreau. 2010. Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (26):11871-11876.
Specimen: Morotochoerus ugandensis (UNM:MOR 177-178)

Abstract

The affinities of the Hippopotamidae are at the core of the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals: cetaceans, ruminants, camels, suoids, and hippos). Molecular phylogenies support Cetacea as sister group of the Hippopotamidae, implying a long ghost lineage between the earliest cetaceans (∼53 Ma) and the earliest hippopotamids (∼16 Ma). Morphological studies have proposed two different sister taxa for hippopotamids: suoids (notably palaeochoerids) or anthracotheriids. Evaluating these phylogenetic hypotheses requires substantiating the poorly known early history of the Hippopotamidae. Here, we undertake an original morphological phylogenetic analysis including several “suiform” families and previously unexamined early Miocene taxa to test previous conflicting hypotheses. According to our results, Morotochoerus ugandensis and Kulutherium rusingensis, until now regarded as the sole African palaeochoerid and the sole African bunodont anthracotheriid, respectively, are unambiguously includedwithin the Hippopotamidae. They are the earliest known hippopotamids and set the family fossil record back to the early Miocene (∼21 Ma). The analysis reveals that hippopotamids displayed
an unsuspected taxonomic and body size diversity and remained restricted to Africa during most of their history, until the latest Miocene. Our results also confirm the deep nesting of Hippopotamidae within the paraphyletic Anthracotheriidae; this finding allows us to reconstruct the sequence of dental innovations that links advanced selenodont anthracotheriids to hippopotamids, previously a source of major disagreements on hippopotamid origins. The analysis demonstrates a close relationship between Eocene choeropotamids and anthracotheriids, a relationship that potentially fills the evolutionary gap between earliest hippopotamids and cetaceans implied by molecular analyses.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P383, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P383
This project containsMatrices
  • 31 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 27 Taxa
  • 3 Specimens
  • 84 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3.96M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2038
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 84
Total characters with associated media: 45
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 177
Total character states with associated media: 1
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:84/0
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MorphoBank Project 383

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Université de Poitiers (University of Poitiers)

    • Universite de Montpellier

    • University of Michigan



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Maeva Orliac
    Project Administrator
    27330844602038
    (2001, 0, 37)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Jean-Renaud Boisserie
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Fabrice Lihoreau
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M874' (27 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Gujaratia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4797901004
    [2] Kenyapotamus ternani
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28565600004
    [3] Kenyapotamus coryndonae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1868300004
    [4] Hexaprotodon garyam
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0808004004
    [5] Hippopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0867806004
    [6] Choeropsis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0807905004
    [7] Morotochoerus ugandensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32515101004
    [8] Kulutherium rusingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    62222200004
    [9] Archaeopotamus lothagamensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39444401004
    [10] Archaeopotamus harvardi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4787703004
    [11] Palaeochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [12] Hyotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [13] Listriodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [14] Cynorca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7767601004
    [15] Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12727200004
    [16] Entelodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1808003004
    [17] Anthracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0858400004
    [18] Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [19] Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1848300004
    [20] Libycosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0818103004
    [21] Merycopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838202004
    [22] Siamotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [23] Microbunodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [24] Cebochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3828001004
    [25] Choeropotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9757500004
    [26] Khirtharia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21606003004
    [27] Gobiohyus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18656501004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views50978
    Taxon list12012
    Media views23373M55827 (601 views); M55443 (688 views); M55644 (586 views); M55829 (631 views); Media search (4405 views); M55441 (657 views); M55633 (598 views); M55830 (658 views); M55632 (596 views); M55635 (622 views); M55636 (623 views); M55637 (578 views); M55638 (602 views); M55640 (585 views); M55641 (605 views); M55643 (632 views); M55642 (617 views); M55645 (570 views); M55832 (592 views); M55834 (605 views); M55831 (597 views); M55836 (625 views); M55833 (637 views); M55839 (617 views); M55828 (606 views); M55837 (613 views); M55838 (565 views); M55835 (600 views); M55444 (603 views); M55634 (612 views); M86106 (601 views); M55639 (646 views);
    Project overview3583
    Matrix views1950Matrix landing page (1703 views); Hippopotamidae dental matrix (247 views);
    Specimen list4269
    Bibliography3334
    Views for media list1134
    Documents list1323




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project386
    Media downloads33M55827 (2 downloads); M55443 (2 downloads); M55830 (2 downloads); M55632 (1 download); M55633 (1 download); M55635 (1 download); M55636 (2 downloads); M55637 (1 download); M55638 (1 download); M55640 (1 download); M55641 (1 download); M55642 (1 download); M55643 (1 download); M55644 (1 download); M55645 (1 download); M55828 (1 download); M55829 (1 download); M55831 (1 download); M55832 (1 download); M55833 (1 download); M55834 (2 downloads); M55835 (1 download); M55836 (1 download); M55837 (1 download); M55838 (1 download); M55839 (1 download); M55441 (1 download); M55444 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads10Hippopotamidae dental matrix (10 downloads);
    Project downloads340
    Document downloads3Kulutherium rusingensis (2 downloads); Morotochoerus ugandensis (1 download);