Project 383: M. Orliac, J.-R. Boisserie, L. MacLatchy, F. Lihoreau. 2010. Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (26):11871-11876.
Specimen: Morotochoerus ugandensis (UNM:MOR 177-178)

Abstract

The affinities of the Hippopotamidae are at the core of the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals: cetaceans, ruminants, camels, suoids, and hippos). Molecular phylogenies support Cetacea as sister group of the Hippopotamidae, implying a long ghost lineage between the earliest cetaceans (∼53 Ma) and the earliest hippopotamids (∼16 Ma). Morphological studies have proposed two different sister taxa for hippopotamids: suoids (notably palaeochoerids) or anthracotheriids. Evaluating these phylogenetic hypotheses requires substantiating the poorly known early history of the Hippopotamidae. Here, we undertake an original morphological phylogenetic analysis including several “suiform” families and previously unexamined early Miocene taxa to test previous conflicting hypotheses. According to our results, Morotochoerus ugandensis and Kulutherium rusingensis, until now regarded as the sole African palaeochoerid and the sole African bunodont anthracotheriid, respectively, are unambiguously includedwithin the Hippopotamidae. They are the earliest known hippopotamids and set the family fossil record back to the early Miocene (∼21 Ma). The analysis reveals that hippopotamids displayed
an unsuspected taxonomic and body size diversity and remained restricted to Africa during most of their history, until the latest Miocene. Our results also confirm the deep nesting of Hippopotamidae within the paraphyletic Anthracotheriidae; this finding allows us to reconstruct the sequence of dental innovations that links advanced selenodont anthracotheriids to hippopotamids, previously a source of major disagreements on hippopotamid origins. The analysis demonstrates a close relationship between Eocene choeropotamids and anthracotheriids, a relationship that potentially fills the evolutionary gap between earliest hippopotamids and cetaceans implied by molecular analyses.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P383, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P383
This project containsMatrices
  • 31 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 27 Taxa
  • 3 Specimens
  • 84 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3.96M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2038
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 84
Total characters with associated media: 45
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 177
Total character states with associated media: 1
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:84/0
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MorphoBank Project 383

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Université de Poitiers (University of Poitiers)

    • Universite de Montpellier

    • University of Michigan



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Maeva Orliac
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 01/21/11
    27330844602038
    (2001, 0, 37)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/09/20
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Jean-Renaud Boisserie
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/19/10
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Fabrice Lihoreau
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/10/10
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M874' (27 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
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    [1] Gujaratia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4797901004
    [2] Kenyapotamus ternani
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28565600004
    [3] Kenyapotamus coryndonae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1868300004
    [4] Hexaprotodon garyam
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0808004004
    [5] Hippopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0867806004
    [6] Choeropsis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0807905004
    [7] Morotochoerus ugandensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32515101004
    [8] Kulutherium rusingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    62222200004
    [9] Archaeopotamus lothagamensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39444401004
    [10] Archaeopotamus harvardi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4787703004
    [11] Palaeochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [12] Hyotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838301004
    [13] Listriodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [14] Cynorca
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7767601004
    [15] Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12727200004
    [16] Entelodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1808003004
    [17] Anthracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0858400004
    [18] Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0848400004
    [19] Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1848300004
    [20] Libycosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0818103004
    [21] Merycopotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0838202004
    [22] Siamotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [23] Microbunodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3818100004
    [24] Cebochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3828001004
    [25] Choeropotamus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9757500004
    [26] Khirtharia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21606003004
    [27] Gobiohyus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18656501004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views43109
    Taxon list10356
    Media views19463M55827 (494 views); M55443 (580 views); M55644 (482 views); M55829 (523 views); Media search (3728 views); M55441 (532 views); M55633 (492 views); M55830 (540 views); M55632 (492 views); M55635 (512 views); M55636 (518 views); M55637 (481 views); M55638 (502 views); M55640 (479 views); M55641 (503 views); M55643 (536 views); M55642 (513 views); M55645 (470 views); M55832 (483 views); M55834 (504 views); M55831 (488 views); M55836 (529 views); M55833 (522 views); M55839 (515 views); M55828 (508 views); M55837 (505 views); M55838 (465 views); M55835 (504 views); M55444 (506 views); M55634 (510 views); M86106 (508 views); M55639 (539 views);
    Project overview3164
    Matrix views1707Matrix landing page (1491 views); Hippopotamidae dental matrix (216 views);
    Specimen list3584
    Bibliography2718
    Views for media list983
    Documents list1134




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project296
    Media downloads33M55827 (2 downloads); M55443 (2 downloads); M55830 (2 downloads); M55632 (1 download); M55633 (1 download); M55635 (1 download); M55636 (2 downloads); M55637 (1 download); M55638 (1 download); M55640 (1 download); M55641 (1 download); M55642 (1 download); M55643 (1 download); M55644 (1 download); M55645 (1 download); M55828 (1 download); M55829 (1 download); M55831 (1 download); M55832 (1 download); M55833 (1 download); M55834 (2 downloads); M55835 (1 download); M55836 (1 download); M55837 (1 download); M55838 (1 download); M55839 (1 download); M55441 (1 download); M55444 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads9Hippopotamidae dental matrix (9 downloads);
    Project downloads251
    Document downloads3Kulutherium rusingensis (2 downloads); Morotochoerus ugandensis (1 download);