Project 3854: D. S. Gernandt, C. Reséndiz Arias, T. Terrazas, X. Aguirre Dugua, A. Willyard. 2018. Incorporating fossils into the Pinaceae tree of life. American Journal of Botany. 105 (8):1329-1344.
Specimen: Pinus thunbergii (unvouchered)
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Abstract

Premise of the Study
Pinaceae have a rich but enigmatic early fossil record, much of which is represented by permineralized seed cones. Our incomplete knowledge of morphology and anatomy in living and extinct species poses an important barrier to understanding their phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification.

Methods
We expanded a morphology matrix to 46 fossil and 31 extant Pinaceae species, mainly adding characters from stem and leaf anatomy and seed cones. Using parsimony and Bayesian inference, we compared phylogenetic relationships for extant taxa with and without fossils from the morphology matrix combined with an alignment of plastid gene sequences.

Key Results
Combined analysis of morphological and molecular characters resulted in a phylogeny of extant Pinaceae that was robust at all nodes except those relating to the interrelationships of Pinus, Picea, and Cathaya and the position of Cedrus. Simultaneous analysis of all fossil and extant species did not result in changes in the relationships among the extant species but did greatly reduce branch support. We found that the placement of most fossils was sensitive to the method of phylogenetic reconstruction when analyzing them singly with the extant species.

Conclusions
A robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the main lineages of Pinaceae is emerging. Most Early Cretaceous fossils are stem or crown lineages of Pinus, but close relationships also were found between fossils and several other extant genera. The phylogenetic position of fossils broadly supports the existence of extant genera in the Lower Cretaceous.



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Article DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1139

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3854, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3854
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 89 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 188 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 248.03k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 8273
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 188
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 456
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:168/20
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MorphoBank Project 3854

    Authors' Institutions

    • Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)

    • Hendrix College



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/04/20
    8911188008273
    (7896, 0, 377)
    000
    David Gernandt
    Full membership
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27058' (89 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Ginkgo biloba
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    50116116022002
    [2] Araucaria heterophylla
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    63112110015002
    [3] Phyllocladus hypophyllus
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    70108108010002
    [4] Cryptomeria japonica
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    37143141010002
    [5] Sciadopitys verticillata
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    38140140010002
    [6] Cephalotaxus harringtonii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    62109109017002
    [7] † Cordaixylon dumusum
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    818383024002
    [8] † Mesoxylon priapi
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    987070020002
    [9] † Emporia lockardii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1016968019002
    [10] † Barthelia furcata
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1106261017002
    [11] † Hanskerpia hamiltonensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1106261017002
    [12] † Pararaucaria patagonica
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1304948010002
    [13] Pinus thunbergii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    4514214201002
    [14] Pinus halepensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    7810910901002
    [15] Pinus pinaster
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6711911902002
    [16] Pinus teocote
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    5113713601002
    [17] Pinus contorta
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    4014714701002
    [18] Pinus ponderosa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1017817701002
    [19] Pinus aristata
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6112612502002
    [20] Pinus monophylla
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    4314514401002
    [21] Pinus pinceana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    5613113002002
    [22] Pinus nelsonii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    3615015002002
    [23] Pinus bungeana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    7211711600002
    [24] Pinus lambertiana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    4414314301002
    [25] Pinus krempfii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6112512502002
    [26] Picea abies
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    3114914908002
    [27] Picea chihuahuana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    5612712606002
    [28] Picea glauca
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6211811808002
    [29] Picea sitchensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    5013013008002
    [30] Cathaya argyrophylla
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    2815515505002
    [31] Pseudotsuga macrocarpa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6511711706002
    [32] Pseudotsuga menziesii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    1716516506002
    [33] Larix occidentalis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    3015615404002
    [34] Larix decidua
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6012512305002
    [35] Abies concolor
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    3514414409002
    [36] Abies lasiocarpa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    5612312309002
    [37] Abies mariesii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    7010910909002
    [38] Abies religiosa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6511511508002
    [39] Cedrus deodara
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    2615715606002
    [40] Keteleeria davidiana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    4713613506002
    [41] Pseudolarix amabilis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    2415815806002
    [42] Nothotsuga longibracteata
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    6811511406002
    [43] Tsuga canadensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    2815315208002
    [44] † Eathiestrobus mackenziei
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    138494901002
    [45] † Obirastrobus kokubunii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    130585701002
    [46] † Obirastrobus nihongii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    129595801002
    [47] † Picea burtonii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    132555501002
    [48] † Pinus belgica
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    131575700002
    [49] † Pinus arnoldii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    7311211203002
    [50] † Pinus yorkshirensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    127606001002
    [51] † Pityostrobus andraei
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    133555500002
    [52] † Pityostrobus argonnensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    130565602002
    [53] † Pityostrobus beardii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    134545400002
    [54] † Pityostrobus bommeri
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    129575702002
    [55] † Pityostrobus californiensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    133545401002
    [56] † Pityostrobus cliffwoodensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    134525202002
    [57] † Pityostrobus corneti
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    130575701002
    [58] † Pityostrobus hallii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    132545402002
    [59] † Pityostrobus hautrageanus
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    133555500002
    [60] † Pityostrobus hokodzensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    133545401002
    [61] † Pityostrobus hueberi
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128585802002
    [62] † Pityostrobus jacksonii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    135525201002
    [63] † Pityostrobus kayeii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128595901002
    [64] † Pityostrobus leckenbyi
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    131565601002
    [65] † Pityostrobus lynnii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    135535201002
    [66] † Pityostrobus macrocephalus
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    136515101002
    [67] † Pityostrobus makahensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    131585601002
    [68] † Pityostrobus matsubarae
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    131565601002
    [69] † Pityostrobus mcmurrayensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    134535301002
    [70] † Pityostrobus milleri
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    135525102002
    [71] † Pityostrobus oblongus
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    131565601002
    [72] † Pityostrobus palmeri
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    130595800002
    [73] † Pityostrobus pluriresinosa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    153353500002
    [74] † Pityostrobus pubescens
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    133535302002
    [75] † Pityostrobus ramentosa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    132545402002
    [76] † Pityostrobus shastaensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    136525200002
    [77] † Pityostrobus villerotensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    126616101002
    [78] † Pityostrobus virginiana
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    130565602002
    [79] † Pityostrobus yixianensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128595901002
    [80] † Pseudoaraucaria arnoldii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    126626101002
    [81] † Pseudoaraucaria benstedi
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    144434301002
    [82] † Pseudoaraucaria gibbosa
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128606000002
    [83] † Pseudoaraucaria heeri
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    126616101002
    [84] † Pseudoaraucaria loppineti
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128595901002
    [85] † Pseudoaraucaria major
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    128595901002
    [86] † Pinus escalantensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    134535301002
    [87] † Pinus haborensis
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    178101000002
    [88] † Pinus matthewsii
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    124646400002
    [89] † Pinus mutoi
    Last Modified in 10/31/20
    138505000002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views220
    Project overview27
    Matrix views40Morphological Matrix from Gernandt et al., 2018 (22 views); Matrix landing page (18 views);
    Views for media list12
    Media views45Media search (39 views); M694532 (6 views);
    Specimen list19
    Taxon list59
    Documents list9
    Bibliography9




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project4
    Project downloads3
    Matrix downloads1Morphological Matrix from Gernandt et al., 2018 (1 download);