Project 3910: N. A. Jud, S. E. Allen, C. W. Nelson, C. L. Bastos, J. G. Chery. 2021. Climbing since the early Miocene: The fossil record of Paullinieae (Sapindaceae). PLOS ONE. 16 (4):e0248369.
Specimen: † Ampelorhiza heteroxylon (FLMNH/UF:63016)
View: Transverse section of root

Abstract

Paullinieae are a diverse group of tropical and subtropical climbing plants that belong to the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). The six genera in this tribe make up approximately one-quarter of the species in the family, but a sparse fossil record limits our understanding of their diversification. Here, we provide the first description of anatomically preserved fossils of Paullinieae and we re-evaluate other macrofossils that have been attributed to the tribe. We identified permineralized fossil roots in collections from the lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation where it was exposed along the Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal. We prepared the fossils using the cellulose acetate peel technique and compared the anatomy with that of extant Paullinieae. The fossil roots preserve a combination of characters found only in Paullinieae, including peripheral secondary vascular strands, vessel dimorphism, alternate intervessel pitting with coalescent apertures, heterocellular rays, and axial parenchyma strands of 2–4 cells, often with prismatic crystals. We also searched the paleontological literature for other occurrences of the tribe. We re-evaluated leaf fossils from western North America that have been assigned to extant genera in the tribe by comparing their morphology to herbarium specimens and cleared leaves. The fossil leaves that were assigned to Cardiospermum and Serjania from the Paleogene of western North America are likely Sapindaceae; however, they lack diagnostic characters necessary for inclusion in Paullinieae and should be excluded from those genera. Therefore, the fossils described here as Ampelorhiza heteroxylon gen. et sp. nov. are the oldest macrofossil evidence of Paullinieae. They provide direct evidence of the development of a vascular cambial variant associated with the climbing habit in Sapindaceae and provide strong evidence of the diversification of crown-group Paullinieae in the tropics by 18.5–19 million years ago.


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Article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248369

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3910, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3910
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 135 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 28 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1.09M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 3289
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 28
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 56
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:28/0
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MorphoBank Project 3910
  • Creation Date:
    08 January 2021
  • Publication Date:
    18 April 2021
  • Project views: 1719

    Authors' Institutions

    • Cornell University

    • Pennsylvania State University

    • University of Florida

    • Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP, University of Sao Paulo)

    • William Jewell College

    • Florida Museum of Natural History



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Nathan Jud
    Project Administrator
    1351128003289
    (3289, 0, 0)
    000
    Sarah Allen
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Joyce Chery
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27199' (135 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Paullinia alata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [2] Paullinia baileyi
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    9191900003
    [3] Paullinia bracteosa
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    6222200003
    [4] Paullinia dasystachya
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [5] Paullinia echinata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [6] Paullinia exalata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [7] Paullinia fibrigera
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [8] Paullinia fimbriata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [9] Paullinia latifolia
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [10] Paullinia micrantha
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [11] Paullinia obovata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [12] Paullinia pinnata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [13] Paullinia pseudota
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [14] Paullinia rubiginosa
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [15] Paullinia rufescens
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [16] Paullinia rugosa
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [17] Paullinia spicata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [18] Paullinia sprucei
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [19] Paullinia trigonia
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [20] Paullinia turbacensis
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [21] Paullinia weinmanniifolia
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    5232300003
    [22] Acer campestre
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [23] Acer cissifolium
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [24] Acer glabrum
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [25] Acer platanoides
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [26] Aesculus flava
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [27] Aesculus glabra
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    2262600003
    [28] Aesculus indica
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    2262600003
    [29] Alectryon connatus
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    3252500003
    [30] Alectryon diversifolius
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    3252500003
    [31] Alectryon excelsus
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    3252500003
    [32] Alectryon oleifolius
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    4242400003
    [33] Alectryon subcinereus
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    3252500003
    [34] Allophylus cobbe
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    6222200003
    [35] Amesiodendron chinensis
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    2262600003
    [36] Arfeuillea arborescens
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    1272700003
    [37] Arytera brackenridgei
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    4242400003
    [38] Arytera collina
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    4242400003
    [39] Arytera littoralis
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    4242400003
    [40] Athyana weinmannifolia
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    2262600003
    [41] Beguea apetala
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    2262600003
    [42] Blighia sapida
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    1272700003
    [43] Blighia unijugata
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    1272700003
    [44] Blighia welwitschii
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    1272700003
    [45] Cardiospermum corindum
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    2262600003
    [46] Castanospora alphandii
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    1272700003
    [47] Chytranthus macrobotrys
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    [48] Chytranthus talbotii
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    [49] Cubilia cubili
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    [50] Cupania dentata
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    [51] Cupania emarginata
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    [52] Cupania hirsuta
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    [53] Cupania scrobiculata
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    [54] Cupaniopsis anacardioides
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    [55] Cupaniopsis apiocarpa
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    [56] Deinbollia borbonica
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    [57] Delavaya yunnanensi
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    3252500003
    [58] Diatenopteryx sorbifolia
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    0282800003
    [59] Dilodendron bipinnatum
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    3252500003
    [60] Dimocarpus longan
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    [61] Dodonaea lanceolata
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    1272700003
    [62] Dodonaea lobulata
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    1272700003
    [63] Dodonaea viscosa
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    [64] Elattostachys apetala
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    [65] Elattostachys nervosa
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    [66] Eriocoelum kerstingii
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [67] Eriocoelum macrocarpum
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [68] Eriocoelum microspermum
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    1272700003
    [69] Erythrophysa aesculina
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    2262600003
    [70] Eurycorymbus cavaleriei
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    [71] Filicium decipiens
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    [72] Filicium longifolium
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    [73] Ganophyllum falcatum
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    [74] Guioa glauca
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    [75] Guioa lasioneura
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    [76] Handeliodendron bodinieri
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    [77] Haplocoelum gallaense
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    [78] Harpullia arborea
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    10181800003
    [79] Hippobromus pauciflorus
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    [80] Hypelate trifoliata
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    [81] Koelreuteria bipinnata
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    [82] Koelreuteria paniculata
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    [83] Laccodiscus pseudostipularis
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    [84] Lepisanthes rubiginosus
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    5232300003
    [85] Lepisanthes senegalensis
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    [86] Litchi chinensis
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    3252500003
    [87] Llagunoa nitida
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    1272700003
    [88] Macphersonia gracilis
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    [89] Magonia pubescens
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    [90] Majidea fosteri
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    [91] Majidea zanguebarika
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    [92] Matayba domingensis
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    [93] Matayba elaeagnoides
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    [94] Matayba guianensis
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    [95] Matayba laevigata
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    [96] Matayba opaca
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    [97] Melicoccus bijugatus
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    [98] Mischocarpus grandissumus
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    7212100003
    [99] Mischocarpus pentapetalus
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    [100] Neotina coursii
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    [101] Nephelium lappaceum
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    [102] Nephelium laurinum
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    [103] Pappea capensis
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
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    [104] Paranephelium macrophyllum
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    3252500003
    [105] Paranephelium xestophyllum
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    [106] Placodiscus leptostachys
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [107] Plagioscyphus louvelii
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    [108] Plagioscyphus unijugatus
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [109] Podonephelium homei
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    2262600003
    [110] Pometia pinnata
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    2262600003
    [111] Pseudopteris decipiens
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [112] Radlkofera calodendron
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [113] Sapindus saponaria
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [114] Sapindus trifoliatus
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [115] Schleichera oleosa
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    6222200003
    [116] Serjania communis
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    244400003
    [117] Serjania lethalis
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [118] Serjania paucidentata
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    1272700003
    [119] Serjania polyphylla
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    244400003
    [120] Stadmannia oppositifolia
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    2262600003
    [121] Talisia nervosa
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    4242400003
    [122] Thinouia mucronata
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    [123] Thouinia paucidentata
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    2262600003
    [124] Thouinia portoricensis
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    [125] Tinopsis apiculata
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    [126] Toechima erythrocarpum
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    [127] Toechima tenax
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    [128] Tristira triptera
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    [129] Ungnadia speciosa
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
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    [130] Vouarana guianensis
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    8202000003
    [131] Xanthoceras sorbifolia
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
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    [132] Xerospermum noronhianum
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    8202000003
    [133] Zanha africana
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    [134] Zanha golungensis
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    [135] † Ampelorhiza heteroxylon
    Last Modified in 01/09/21
    6222200003


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    Total project views1719
    Project overview142
    Matrix views100Anatomy of Sapindaceae (Klaassen, 1999) (21 views); Matrix landing page (79 views);
    Media views258Media search (220 views); M738853 (38 views);
    Views for media list86
    Taxon list930
    Bibliography59
    Specimen list144




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