Project 3939: A. Benites-Palomino, J. VĂ©lez-Juarbe, R. Salas-Gismondi, M. Urbina. 2019. Scaphokogia totajpe, sp. nov., a new bulky-faced pygmy sperm whale (Kogiidae) from the late Miocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (6):e1728538.
Specimen: Kogia sima (unvouchered)
View: whole organism

Abstract

The modern pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (Physeteroidea, Kogiidae) are remnants of a highly diverse group, which flourished in the Miocene oceans. Unlike their modern suction-feeding, deep-diving relatives, the past diversity of this family includes animals with disparate ecological habits. Here, we describe Scaphokogia totajpe, sp. nov., a new species of kogiid based on a well-preserved skull from the upper Miocene strata of the Pisco Formation, Peru. A phylogenetic analysis places S. totajpe as sister taxon of S. cochlearis and divides Kogiidae into two clades: the first including both species of Scaphokogia and the second including Kogia, Koristocetus, Praekogia, and Nanokogia. Similar to S. cochlearis, S. totajpe has a tubular rostrum with a hypertrophied mesorostral canal, a large supracranial basin, and a leftward deviated facial sagittal crest, but it differs by possessing a proportionately shorter rostrum, a reduced projection of the lacrimojugal between the frontal and the maxilla, and a flat occipital shield. The cranial morphology of Scaphokogia indicates that the extent of the nasal complex was greater than in modern kogiids. Furthermore, the overall rostrum shape and the reconstructed muscle insertion sites indicate that Scaphokogia retained some plesiomorphic features related to a more generalist ecology. Inclusion of S. totajpe into the context of the Pisco Formation indicates that during the late Miocene, the Peruvian coastal system was a hot spot for the diversification of physeteroids, with at least four species coexisting. Finally, Scaphokogia totajpe highlights a late Miocene diversity peak for sperm whales in the global oceans, before the Pliocene odontocete turnover.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1728538

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3939, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3939
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 32 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 57 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 32.7k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1179
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 57
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 145
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:57/0
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MorphoBank Project 3939

    Authors' Institutions

    • National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    • Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    • Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

    • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    321157001179
    (1179, 0, 0)
    000
    Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Mario Urbina
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27255' (32 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Zygorhiza kochii
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    11464600003
    [2] † Cynthiacetus peruvianus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    11464600003
    [3] † Agorophius pygmaeus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    22353500003
    [4] † Eudelphis mortezelensis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    34232300003
    [5] † Zygophyseter varolai
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    7505000003
    [6] † Brygmophyseter shigensis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    29282800003
    [7] † Acrophyseter deinodon
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    11464600003
    [8] † Acrophyseter robustus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    14434300003
    [9] † Acrophyseter spp.
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    28292900003
    [10] † Livyatan melvillei
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    21363600003
    [11] † "Aulo" (patagophyseter) rionegrensis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    17404000003
    [12] † Orycterocetus crocodilinus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    8494900003
    [13] † Physeterula dubusi
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    24333300003
    [14] † Idiorophus patagonicus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    37202000003
    [15] † Diaphorocetus poucheti
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    25323200003
    [16] † Placoziphius duboisi
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    29282800003
    [17] † Aulophyseter morricei
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    6515100003
    [18] Physeter macrocephalus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    1565600003
    [19] † Idiophyseter merriami
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    41161600003
    [20] † Thalassocetus antwerpiensis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    38191900003
    [21] † Aprixokogia kelloggi
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    19383800003
    [22] † Scaphokogia cochlearis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    14434300003
    [23] † Praekogia cedrosensis
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    31262600003
    [24] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    1565600003
    [25] † Koristocetus pescei
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    22353500003
    [26] † Nanokogia isthmia
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    13444400003
    [27] † MUSM 3405
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    23343400003
    [28] Kogia sima
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    1565600003
    [29] † Kogia pusilla
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    31262600003
    [30] † Scaphokogia totajpe sp nov.
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    15424200003
    [31] † LACM156632?
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    15424200003
    [32] † Albicetus oxymycterus
    Last Modified in 02/22/21
    46111100003


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    Project overview282
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    Specimen list239
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