Project 3943: F. Mao, C. Zhang, C. Liu, J. Meng. 2021. Fossoriality and evolutionary development in two Cretaceous mammaliamorphs. Nature. 592 (7855):577-582.
Specimen: † Fossiomanus sinensis (Jinzhou Paleontological Museum/JZMP-2107500093:JZMP-2107500093)
View: Ventral skeleton

Abstract

Mammaliamorpha comprises the last common ancestor of Tritylodontidae and Mammalia plus all its descendants. Tritylodontids are nonmammaliaform herbivorous cynodonts that originated in the Late Triassic epoch, diversified in the Jurassic period and survived into the Early Cretaceous epoch. Eutriconodontans have generally been considered to be an extinct mammalian group, although different views exist. Here we report a newly discovered tritylodontid and eutriconodontan from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Eutriconodontans are common in this biota, but it was not previously known to contain tritylodontids. The two distantly related species show convergent features that are adapted for fossorial life, and are the first ‘scratch-diggers’ known from this biota. Both species also show an increased number of presacral vertebrae, relative to the ancestral state in synapsids or mammals that display meristic and homeotic changes. These fossils shed light on the evolutionary development of the axial skeleton in mammaliamorphs, which has been the focus of numerous studies in vertebrate evolution and developmental biology. The phenotypes recorded by these fossils indicate that developmental plasticity in somitogenesis and HOX gene expression in the axial skeleton—similar to that observed in extant mammals—was already in place in stem mammaliamorphs. The interaction of these developmental mechanisms with natural selection may have underpinned the diverse phenotypes of body plan that evolved independently in various clades of mammaliamorph.


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Article DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03433-2

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3943, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3943
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 123 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 551 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3.48M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 31842
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 551
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1475
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:551/0
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MorphoBank Project 3943

    Authors' Institutions

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • City University of New York

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS

    • CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment

    • Beipiao Pterosaur Museum of China



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
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    notes  media
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Fangyuan Mao
    Project Administrator
    12321055105510031842
    (31841, 0, 1)
    02000
    Jin Meng
    Full membership
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    Chi Zhang
    Full membership
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27259' (121 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Thrinaxodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    18936636200003
    [2] † Massetognathus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    26328828800003
    [3] † Probainognathus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23531731600003
    [4] † Fossiomanus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    35220419900003
    [5] † Oligokyphus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    25630029500003
    [6] † Kayentatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    28726626400003
    [7] † Yunnanodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42612512500003
    [8] † Bocatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    454979700003
    [9] † Bienotheroides
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    33821521300003
    [10] † Bienotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    36418918700003
    [11] † Tritylodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    469828200003
    [12] † Pachygenelus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    20734434400003
    [13] † Sinoconodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    18636736500003
    [14] † Morganucodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    12743142400003
    [15] † Megazostrodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    16638638500003
    [16] † Haldanodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    19835435300003
    [17] † Castorocauda
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    30125025000003
    [18] † Docofossor
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    27228227900003
    [19] † Agilodocodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    19235935900003
    [20] † Pseudotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    44711010400003
    [21] † Riograndia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    35220319900003
    [22] † Brasilodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    30025525100003
    [23] † Brasilitherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    40915014200003
    [24] † Adalatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    32822522300003
    [25] † Vintana-A
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    40414914700003
    [26] † Eleutherodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    495565600003
    [27] † Sineleutherus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    501515000003
    [28] † Thomasia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    486666500003
    [29] † Haramiyavia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42213012900003
    [30] † Arboroharamiya
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    24930930200003
    [31] † Xianshou
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    26728828400003
    [32] † Shenshou
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23831731300003
    [33] † Qishou
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    25430229700003
    [34] † Vilevolodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    34820420300003
    [35] † Maioparragium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42512712600003
    [36] † Kuehneodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    41114114000003
    [37] † Rugosodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    29026226100003
    [38] † Jeholbaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    24830530300003
    [39] † Sinobaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    22832932300003
    [40] † Ptilodus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23431931700003
    [41] † Taeniolabis
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    36818518300003
    [42] † Lambdopsalis
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    22533232600003
    [43] † Catopsbaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    28327026800003
    [44] † Chulsanbaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    25429729700003
    [45] † Nemegtbaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    26428828700003
    [46] † Kryptobaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    20634834500003
    [47] † Yubaatar
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    22833332300003
    [48] † Sphenopsalis
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42812412300003
    [49] † Hadrocodium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    27827327300003
    [50] † Shuotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42812312300003
    [51] † Pseudotribos
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    35120020000003
    [52] † Asfaltomylos
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    44011111100003
    [53] † Ambondro
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    464878700003
    [54] † Ausktribosphenos
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42512612600003
    [55] † Bishops
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42412712700003
    [56] † Teinolophos
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42213012900003
    [57] † Steropodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    468838300003
    [58] † Obdurodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    30125025000003
    [59] Ornithorhynchus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    17138338000003
    [60] Tachyglossus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    22333032800003
    [61] † Fruitafossor
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    34820320300003
    [62] † Gobiconodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    15439939700003
    [63] † Repenomamus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    13941441200003
    [64] † Amphilestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    43211911900003
    [65] † Yanoconodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23032132100003
    [66] † Liaoconodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    20535334500003
    [67] † Jeholodens
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    21733433400003
    [68] † Jueconodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    25729729400003
    [69] † Chaoyangodens
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    28327026800003
    [70] † Trioracodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    37917317200003
    [71] † Priacodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    33621621500003
    [72] † Tinodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    43711611400003
    [73] † Akidolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23731531400003
    [74] † Spalacotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    38217116900003
    [75] † Zhangheotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    16738638400003
    [76] † Maotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    16838638300003
    [77] † Origolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    14541740600003
    [78] † Anebodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    37218317900003
    [79] † Lactodens
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    36718818400003
    [80] † Kiyatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    38816616300003
    [81] † Dryolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    35020120100003
    [82] † Henkelotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    27827327300003
    [83] † Amphitherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    39315915800003
    [84] † Peramus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    37318117800003
    [85] † Vincelestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    11943543200003
    [86] † Nanolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    39116016000003
    [87] † Montanalestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    42013113100003
    [88] † Prokennalestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    31423923700003
    [89] † Eomaia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    20234934900003
    [90] † Juramaia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    34620420401003
    [91] † Sinodelphys (modified)
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    29026226100003
    [92] † Ambolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    29826325300003
    [93] † Volaticotherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    37418117700003
    [94] † Kennalestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23232131900003
    [95] † Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    15040140100003
    [96] † Ukhaatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    22932232200003
    [97] † Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    10245844900003
    [98] † Daulestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    28526826600003
    [99] † Aspanlestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    39915215200003
    [100] † Cimolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    36318818800003
    [101] † Gypsonictops
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    36618518500003
    [102] † Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    31523823600003
    [103] Erinaceus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    6349048800003
    [104] † Leptictis
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    10244944900003
    [105] Rattus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    14141041000003
    [106] † Oryctolagus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    12542642600003
    [107] Bradypus
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    21633733500003
    [108] Dasypus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    21034334100003
    [109] † Holoclemensia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    43911211100003
    [110] † Deltatheridium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    24430930700003
    [111] † Sulestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    35819319300003
    [112] † Asiatherium
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    21333933800003
    [113] † Kokopellia
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    38916316200003
    [114] † Didelphodon
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    30824324300003
    [115] † Mayulestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    13142042000003
    [116] † Pucadelphys
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    10744444400003
    [117] † Andinodelphys
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    23231931900003
    [118] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    6049349100003
    [119] Marmosa
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    6149049000003
    [120] † Caenolestes
    Last Modified in 04/09/21
    9345845800003
    [121] Dasyurus
    Last Modified in 02/24/21
    6848548300003


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    Total project views2453
    Project overview167
    Matrix views128Fossoriality and evolutionary development in two Cretaceous mammaliamorphs (23 views); Matrix landing page (105 views);
    Taxon list1303
    Specimen list266
    Bibliography60
    Media views343Media search (296 views); M739217 (47 views);
    Views for media list186




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    Total downloads from project33
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    Matrix downloads8Fossoriality and evolutionary development in two Cretaceous mammaliamorphs (8 downloads);