Project 3958: S. Giovanardi, D. T. Ksepka, D. B. Thomas. 2021. A giant Oligocene fossil penguin from the North Island of New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Early View:none yet.
Specimen: † Kairuku waewaeroa (Waikato Museum: 2006/1/1)
View: Ventral view

Abstract

Penguins (Sphenisciformes) have arguably the most complete and continuous fossil record of any avian clade, offering an ever-improving understanding of penguin phylogeny, biogeography, and the evolution of wing-propelled diving. Yet, our knowledge of the precise body proportions of stem-group penguins remains poor due to a dearth of articulated specimens. Here, we describe Kairuku waewaeroa sp. nov., a new giant penguin species from the Glen Massey Formation (Whaingaroan stage, 34.6–27.3 Ma). The holotype skeleton, discovered in Kawhia Harbour, North Island, New Zealand, is one of the most complete skeletons of a giant penguin yet uncovered. Our phylogenetic analysis recovers a clade uniting the New Zealand endemics Kairuku waewaeroa, Kairuku waitaki, and Kairuku grebneffi, which is supported by synapomorphies including a stout femoral shaft and tibiotarsi with a distinctly convex medial condyle. Kairuku waewaeroa is unique among stem penguins in having elongate tibiotarsi, revealing a new long-legged stem penguin body plan. The discovery of Kairuku waewaeroa contributes yet another penguin species to an Oligocene avifauna for Zealandia that is replete with giant birds.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2021.1953047

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3958, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3958
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 79 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 284 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 506.17k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 12680
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 284
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 697
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:244/40
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MorphoBank Project 3958
  • Creation Date:
    14 March 2021
  • Publication Date:
    16 September 2021
  • Project views: 822

    Authors' Institutions

    • Massey University

    • Bruce Museum



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
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    notes  media
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    Simone Giovanardi
    Project Administrator
    79110284000012680
    (10826, 0, 1854)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27301' (79 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    [1] Gavia immer
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    35200200049001
    [2] Gavia stellata
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    25211210049001
    [3] Daption capense
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    28208208048001
    [4] Diomedea exulans
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    42194194048001
    [5] Macronectes giganteus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    27211207050001
    [6] Oceanites oceanicus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    28207207049001
    [7] Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    29205205050001
    [8] † Pachyptila desolata
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    28208207049001
    [9] Pelecanoides urinatrix
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    28207206050001
    [10] Phoebastria albatrus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    39199199046001
    [11] Phoebastria immutabilis
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    39197197048001
    [12] Phoebetria palpebrata
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    30205205049001
    [13] Procellaria cinerea
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    97175175012001
    [14] Pterodroma brevirostris
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    95177177012001
    [15] Puffinus gravis
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    37200199048001
    [16] Thalassarche melanophrys
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    37199198049001
    [17] Aptenodytes forsteri
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    827227006001
    [18] Aptenodytes patagonicus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1226826606001
    [19] Pygoscelis antarctica
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1326926605001
    [20] Pygoscelis papua
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1427126505001
    [21] † Pygoscelis adeliae
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1126926805001
    [22] † Madrynornis mirandus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    151411410128001
    [23] Megadyptes antipodes
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1226726705001
    [24] Eudyptes chrysolophus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    927527401001
    [25] Eudyptes chrysocome
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    3524824702001
    [26] Eudyptes filholi
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    3424824802001
    [27] Eudyptes moseleyi
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    2925425302001
    [28] Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1227427002001
    [29] Eudyptes robustus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    3225325002001
    [30] Eudyptes schlegeli
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1926426302001
    [31] Eudyptes sclateri
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    3125425201001
    [32] Eudyptula minor
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    827527204001
    [33] Eudyptula novaehollandiae
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    827627204001
    [34] † Inguza predemersus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    212717101001
    [35] † Nucleornis insolitus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    270111103001
    [36] Spheniscus demersus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1127126904001
    [37] Spheniscus magellanicus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1326826704001
    [38] Spheniscus humboldti
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1127126904001
    [39] Spheniscus mendiculus
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    1426526505001
    [40] Spheniscus urbinai
    Last Modified in 03/14/21
    17710810700001
    [41] † Spheniscus megaramphus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    230464608001
    [42] † Spheniscus muizoni
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    10757570120001
    [43] † Marplesornis novaezealandiae
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1887272024001
    [44] † Palaeospheniscus biloculata
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    7564640145001
    [45] † Palaeospheniscus bergi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2026968014001
    [46] † Palaeospheniscus patagonicus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1798382023001
    [47] † Eretiscus tonnii
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2303636018001
    [48] † Platydyptes novaezealandiae
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2214242021001
    [49] † Platydyptes marplesi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2076161016001
    [50] † Pachydyptes ponderosus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2004746038001
    [51] † Paraptenodytes antarcticus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1858383016001
    [52] † Archaeospheniscus lowei
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2244646014001
    [53] † Archaeospheniscus lopdelli
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2323434018001
    [54] † Perudyptes devriesi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1946059031001
    [55] † Icadyptes salasi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1669393025001
    [56] † Inkayacu paracasensis
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    16312112100001
    [57] † Burnside palaeeudyptes
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2085454022001
    [58] † Kairuku waitaki
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1997474011001
    [59] † Kairuku grebneffi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    185969603001
    [60] † Palaeeudyptes klekowskii
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1926766026001
    [61] † Palaeeudyptes gunnari
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1996059026001
    [62] † Anthropornis sp. UCMP 321023
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    26377014001
    [63] † Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2274040017001
    [64] † Anthropornis grandis
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2352727022001
    [65] † Notodyptes wimani
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2501110024001
    [66] † Delphinornis gracilis
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2411817026001
    [67] † Delphinornis arctowskii
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2431515026001
    [68] † Delphinornis larseni
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2362322026001
    [69] † Mesetaornis polaris
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2401717027001
    [70] † Marambiornis exilis
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2411717026001
    [71] † Muriwaimanu tuatahi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    1769494014001
    [72] † Waimanu manneringi
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2312727026001
    [73] † Duntroonornis parvus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    26466014001
    [74] † Pygoscelis grandis
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2013131052001
    [75] † Palaeeudyptes antarcticus
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    2601313011001
    [76] † Kairuku waewaeroa
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    211737300001
    [77] † Kumimanu biceae
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    259252500001
    [78] † Sequiwaimanu rosieae
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    187969601001
    [79] † Kuopoupou stilwelli
    Last Modified in 09/16/21
    211757300001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views822
    Project overview72
    Media views146Media search (125 views); M823647 (21 views);
    Matrix views58Matrix landing page (43 views); Morphological matrix (15 views);
    Documents list44
    Views for media list47
    Taxon list356
    Bibliography27
    Specimen list72




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project23
    Project downloads22
    Document downloads1Bones measurements (1 download);