Project 407: F. Herrera, S. R. Manchester, S. B. Hoot, K. M. Wefferling, M. R. Carvalho, C. Jaramillo. 2011. Phytogeographic implications of fossil endocarps of Menispermaceae from the Paleocene of Colombia. American Journal of Botany. 98 (12):2004-2017.
Specimen: Cyclea polypetala (US:458824)
View: Lateral

Abstract

• Premise of the study: Fossil leaves of Menispermaceae were previously described from the Paleocene of Colombia. Because of strong homoplasy of leaf characters, the fossils could not be placed more specifically within recognized clades, and additional data were needed to specify intrafamilial and paleogeographic relationships during the Paleocene.

• Methods: Fossil endocarps of Menispermaceae were collected from the Cerrejón Formation, the recently discovered Bogotá flora, and Wyoming (∼60 Ma). We surveyed the endocarp morphology of almost all extant genera, conducted character optimization, a molecular scaffold analysis, and critically reviewed the related fossil genera.

• Key results: Parallel syndromes of fruit characters have appeared in unrelated clades of the family according to current phylogenetic reconstructions. However, mapping selected endocarp characters across those clades that contain horseshoe-shaped endocarps facilitates identification and phylogenetic assessment of the fossils. Three fossil species are recognized. One of them belongs to the extant genus Stephania, which today grows only in Africa and Australasia. Palaeoluna gen. nov. is placed within the pantropical clade composed of extant Stephania, Cissampelos, and Cyclea; this morphogenus is also recognized from the Paleocene of Wyoming. Menispina gen. nov. shows similarity with several unrelated clades.

• Conclusions: The new fossils from Colombia reveal a complex paleobiogeographic history of the recognized clades within Menispermaceae, suggesting a more active exchange among neotropical, paleotropical, North American, and European paleoforests than previously recognized. In addition, the new fossils indicate that neotropical forests were an important biome for the radiation and dispersal of derived lineages in Menispermaceae after the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary.



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Article DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000461

Project DOI: 10.7934/P407, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P407
This project containsMatrices
  • 7 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 30 Taxa
  • 22 Specimens
  • 25 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 20 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 664
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 25
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 67
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:25/0
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MorphoBank Project 407


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Fabiany Herrera
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 12/12/11
    23002500664
    (640, 0, 24)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/13/12
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/23/12
    72270000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1259' (23 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Sagittaria sagittifolia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0232302003
    [2] Fumaria indica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0242302003
    [3] Sinomenium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0262500003
    [4] Menispermum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0272500003
    [5] Calycocarpum, Coscinium, Anamirta, Arcangelisia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1301905003
    [6] Parabaena, Tinomiscium, Borismene, Fibraurea, Penianthus, Dioscoreophyllum, Tinospora, Chasmanthe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1351905003
    [7] Burasaia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1181806003
    [8] Diploclisia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0262500003
    [9] Pericampylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0262500003
    [10] Sarcopetalum, Abuta, Orthomene, Legnephora, Parapachygone
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0452401003
    [11] Hypserpa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0272500003
    [12] Limacia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1232301003
    [13] Strychnopsis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2232300003
    [14] Cocculus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0292500003
    [15] Haematocarpus, Cocculus, Hyperbaena
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0422500003
    [16] Pycnarrhena, Tiliacora, Albertisia, Triclisia, Carronia, Chondrodendron, Curarea, Sciadotenia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0462401003
    [17] Pachygone
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1302301003
    [18] Stephania
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0322500003
    [19] Cyclea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0282500003
    [20] Cissampelos
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0302500003
    [21] Stephania palaeosudamericana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8171700003
    [22] Menispina evidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9191600003
    [23] Palaeoluna bogotensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11141400003


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    Project overview2438
    Bibliography790
    Specimen list12386
    Media views7473Media search (3450 views); M102539 (613 views); M102540 (742 views); M102542 (433 views); M102537 (774 views); M102538 (468 views); M102536 (531 views); M102541 (462 views);
    Views for media list1202
    Matrix views1827Matrix landing page (1606 views); Herrera et al_Endocarp Morphological Matrix Menispermaceae (221 views);
    Taxon list7270
    Documents list1287




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project160
    Matrix downloads3Herrera et al_Endocarp Morphological Matrix Menispermaceae (3 downloads);
    Document downloads2Copyright information for exemplar media (2 downloads);
    Project downloads155