Project 4119: E. J. Hermsen, T. N. Taylor, E. L. Taylor, D. W. Stevenson. 2006. Cataphylls of the Middle Triassic cycad Antarcticycas schopfii and new insights into cycad evolution. American Journal of Botany. 93 (5):724-738.
Specimen: Lepidozamia (unvouchered)
View: N/A

Abstract

Cataphylls associated with the Middle Triassic stem genus Antarcticycas are described, and their impact on understanding cycad evolution is discussed. The cataphylls of Antarcticycas are triangular in outline and flattened adaxially with lateral flanges. The outer surfaces are covered with a ramentum of filamentous hairs, the epidermis is a single cell layer thick, and the ground tissue is parenchymatous with mucilage canals and sclereids. Vascular bundles form a distinct inverted omega-shaped pattern characteristic of the Cycadales observed in petioles of extant species. The structures in Antarcticycas are interpreted as cataphylls based on overall morphology, presence of straight vascular strands in the cortex of the associated stem, and lack of fascicular cambia in the vascular bundles. Because much of the overall diversity of Cycadales is represented by fossils, integrating fossil taxa into explicit phylogenetic hypotheses is important for understanding cycad evolution. Therefore, character and minimum age mapping were performed on a phylogeny of extant and fossil taxa including Antarcticycas. The results suggest that major extant lineages of Cycadales had diverged by the Permian to Triassic and that certain synapomorphies for Cycadales had evolved by the Permian. Evidence of insect feeding on Antarcticycas suggests that associations between cycads and insects are ancient.


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Article DOI: 10.3732/ajb.93.5.724

Project DOI: 10.7934/P4119, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P4119
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 32 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 69 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1334
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 69
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 167
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:69/0
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MorphoBank Project 4119
  • Creation Date:
    10 November 2021
  • Publication Date:
    29 December 2021
  • Project views: 488

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of Kansas

    • New York Botanical Garden



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    321169001334
    (1299, 0, 35)
    000
    Elizabeth Hermsen
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27704' (32 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
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    [1] Marattiales
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    0555201700none
    [2] Ginkgoales
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    459590600none
    [3] Mesospermae
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    196680000none
    [4] Bowenia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    069690000none
    [5] Stangeria
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    069690000none
    [6] Cycas
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    076690000none
    [7] † Crossozamia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5415150000none
    [8] Dioon
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    069690000none
    [9] † Dioonopsis
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4920200000none
    [10] † Lyssoxylon
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5811110000none
    [11] Encephalartos
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    075690000none
    [12] Lepidozamia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    069690000none
    [13] Macrozamia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    074690000none
    [14] Ceratozamia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    071690000none
    [15] Microcycas
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    069690000none
    [16] Zamia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    072690000none
    [17] Chigua
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    267670000none
    [18] † Sueria
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4817170400none
    [19] † Ticoa
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4921200000none
    [20] † Almargemia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4919190100none
    [21] † Mesodescolea
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4920200000none
    [22] † Kurtziana
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4920200000none
    [23] † Ctenis
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5020190000none
    [24] † Bjuvia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    4917170300none
    [25] † Bororoa
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5712120000none
    [26] † Menucoa
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5712120000none
    [27] † Antarcticycas
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5416150000none
    [28] † Michelilloa
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5910100000none
    [29] † Fascivarioxylon
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5811110000none
    [30] † Charmorgia
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5712120000none
    [31] † Nilssoniocladus
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    5214140300none
    [32] † NILANBE
    Last Modified in 11/10/21
    2642420100none


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    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views488
    Project overview43
    Matrix views32Matrix landing page (32 views);
    Media views113Media search (96 views); M824243 (17 views);
    Documents list28
    Bibliography18
    Views for media list31
    Specimen list41
    Taxon list182




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