Project 427: J. Conrad. 2008. Phylogeny And Systematics Of Squamata (Reptilia) Based On Morphology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 310:1-182.
Specimen: Gekko gecko (AMNH:R141109)
View: Skull, ventral

Abstract

Squamata (amphisbaenians, “lizards”, mosasaurs, and snakes) is an extremely diverse clade with a rich fossil record. There is little consensus about the interrelationships of the major squamate clades (i.e., Iguania, Gekkota, Scincomorpha, Anguimorpha, Amphisbaenia, and Serpentes), or even the membership of some of these clades. Morphology-based cladistic analyses typically agree only that the major dichotomy in extant squamates is between Iguania and all other taxa. The phylogenetic placement of Amphisbaenia and Serpentes is particularly problematic. Incomplete taxon sampling is likely a major contributing factor to the absence of a consensus about squamate interrelationships. This study examines squamate relationships using 222 ingroup taxa scored for 363 morphological characters. Analysis of these data recovered 2,213 equally short trees with a length of 3,273 steps and a retention index of 0.7164. The results confirm the monophyly of the clades Scleroglossa (extant squamates exclusive of Iguania), Gekkota, Scincomorpha, Lacertoidea, Scincoidea, Anguimorpha, Carusioidea, Platynota, and Varanoidea. Novel results include the identification of a clade containing Scincidae sensu lato, Dibamidae, Amphisbaenia, and Serpentes; identification of a Mesozoic clade containing Bainguis, Eoxanta lacertifrons, Globaura venusta, and Myrmecodaptria; and identification of Dalinghosaurus as a basal shinisaur. A new taxonomic scheme is outlined. The names Iguanomorpha, Scincogekkonomorpha, Evansauria, and Mosasauriformes are applied to the stem-based groups including Iguania, Scleroglossa, Autarchoglossa, and Mosasauria, respectively. The importance of strict rigidity within taxonomy is questioned; taxonomy is most useful as a tool for communication about organisms or groups of organisms.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P427, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P427
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 224 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 364 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

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Total scored cells: 47802
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 364
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 898
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:364/0
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MorphoBank Project 427


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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M990' (223 Taxa)

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    [1] Rhynchocephalia
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    16323312036002
    [2] Huehuecuetzpalli
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16918718708002
    [3] Nyctisaurops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18716816809002
    [4] Gobekko
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    240114114010002
    [5] Diplodactylinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37308301026002
    [6] Tepexisaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    194160160010002
    [7] Eolacerta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16020120103002
    [8] Gymnophthalmidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1836633709002
    [9] Chamops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    323403902002
    [10] Tupinambinae
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    10358343011002
    [11] Teiinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    23344329012002
    [12] Pseudosaurillussp
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    278818105002
    [13] Pseudosaurillus
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    311535300002
    [14] Lacertidae
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    20354332012002
    [15] Ornatocephalus
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    22113713706002
    [16] Cordyloidea
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    2736033106002
    [17] Sakurasaurus
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    296666602002
    [18] Parmeosaurus
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    15920220203002
    [19] Xenosaurus
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    1934133708002
    [20] Lancensis
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    304585802002
    [21] Carusia
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    14021721707002
    [22] Exostinus
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    [23] Restes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [24] Colpodontosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [25] Eosaniwa
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    [26] Parviderma
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [27] Bahndwivici
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [28] Shinisaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [29] Dalinghosaurus
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    [33] Proplatynotia
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    [34] Paravaranus
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    [35] Parviraptor mj
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    [36] Parviraptor
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    17218618507002
    [39] Telmasaurus
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    [41] Aiolosaurus
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    [42] Estesia
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    305555504002
    [47] Primaderma
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    [48] Oventralis
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    57290290017002
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    281787805002
    [94] Adriosaurus
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    270929202002
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    [98] Tethysaurus
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    [100] Goronyosaurus
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    [102] Halisaurusplaty
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    [104] Plotosaurus
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    [108] Rikisaurus
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    [115] Tylosaurus
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    [118] Palaeoxantusia
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    [126] Gobinatus
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    16919219203002
    [127] Darchansaurus
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    18817417402002
    [128] MacrocephCHUL
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    [129] Sineoamphisbaena
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    [130] Bipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [131] Blanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [132] Amphisbaenidae
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    [133] Trogonophidae
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    [134] Rhineuridae
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    34276270060002
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    [136] Zapsosaurus
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    [138] Ctenomastax
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    [139] Temujinia
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    [140] Rhampholeon
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    [141] Brookesia
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    [142] Physignathus
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    [147] Mimeosaurus
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    [148] AMNHiguana
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    [149] Crotaphytidae
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    [150] Iguanidae
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    [151] FMNHpolychrotid
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    [152] Anisolepinae
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    [153] Leiosaurinae
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    [154] Phyrnosomatidae
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    [155] Corytophanidae
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    [156] Polychrus marmoratus
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    [158] Polychrus gutturosus
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    [159] AnoleAMBER
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    [160] Anolis heterodermus
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    [162] Anolis occultus
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    [163] Anolis vermiculatus
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    [164] Leiocephalus
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    [165] Stenocercus
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    [166] Tropiduridae
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    [167] Liolaemus
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    [168] Hoplocercus
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    [169] Morunasaurus
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    131222222011002
    [170] Enyalioides
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    [171] Oplurus qh
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    [172] Oplurus cyclurus
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    [173] Oplurus ql
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    [174] Chalarodon
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    [178] Eidolosaurus
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    [179] Scelotinae
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    [180] Acontinae
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    [181] Scincianae
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    [182] Feylininae
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    [183] Meyasaurus
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    [184] Slavoia
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    [185] Tchingisaurus
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    [186] Dibamus
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    [187] Anelytropsis
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    [188] Eoxanta
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    [189] Hoyalacerta
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    [190] Globaura
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    [191] Palaeosaniwa
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    [192] Hhorridum
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    [193] Hsuspectum
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    [194] Htexana
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    [196] Gekko
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    [198] Teratoscincus
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    [200] Hemitheconyx
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    [201] Coleonyx
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    [202] Paramacellodus
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    [204] Volivaceus
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    [205] Veremius
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    [206] Vtristis
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    [207] Vprasinus
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    [208] Vsalvadorii
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    [209] VMegalania
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    [210] Vkomodoensis
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    [211] Vvarius
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    [212] Vrusingensis
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    [213] Vgriseus
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    [214] Vniloticus
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    [215] Vexanthematicus
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    [216] Saniwa ensidens
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    [217] Typhlops
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    [218] Liotyphlops
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    [219] Leptotyphlops
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    [220] Pygopus
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    [221] Aprasia
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    [222] Delma
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    [223] Pletholax
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