Project 4327: D. Foffa, E. M. Dunne, S. J. Nesbitt, R. J. Butler, N. C. Fraser, S. L. Brusatte, A. Farnsworth, D. J. Lunt, P. J. Valdes, S. Walsh, P. M. Barrett. 2022. Scleromochlus and the early evolution of Pterosauromorpha. Nature. 610 (7931):313-318.
Specimen: † Scleromochlus taylori Woodward, 1907
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Abstract

Pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight, were key components of Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems, from their sudden appearance in the Late Triassic until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous1–6. However, the origin and early evolution of pterosaurs are poorly understood, due to a substantial stratigraphic and morphological gap between these reptiles and their closest relatives6, Lagerpetidae7. Scleromochlus taylori, a tiny reptile from the early Late Triassic of Scotland discovered over a century ago, was hypothesized to be a key taxon closely related to pterosaurs8, but its poor preservation has limited prior studies and resulted in controversy over its phylogenetic position, with some even doubting its identification as an archosaur9. Here we use micro-computed tomographic scans to provide the first accurate whole skeleton reconstruction and a revised diagnosis of Scleromochlus, revealing new anatomical details that conclusively identify it as a close pterosaur relative1 within Pterosauromorpha (the lagerpetid + pterosaur clade). Scleromochlus is anatomically more similar to lagerpetids than to pterosaurs and retains numerous features that were likely present in very early diverging members of Avemetatarsalia (bird-line archosaurs). These results support the hypothesis that the first flying reptiles evolved from tiny, likely facultatively bipedal, cursorial ancestors1.


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Article DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05284-x

Project DOI: 10.7934/P4327, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P4327
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 6 Documents
  • 198 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 823 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 453.12k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 68622
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 823
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1910
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:716/107
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MorphoBank Project 4327

    Authors' Institutions

    • Natural History Museum, London

    • National Museums of Scotland, Royal Museum, Edinburgh

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • University of Birmingham

    • University of Edinburgh

    • Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)

    • University of Bristol

    • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

    • Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Davide Foffa
    Project Administrator
    1110000
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    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M29034' (197 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Petrolacosaurus kansensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    105621603099001
    [2] † Acerosodontosaurus piveteaui
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    531231224062001
    [3] † Youngina capensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    101638591089001
    [4] † Paliguana whitei
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    692103101028001
    [5] † Planocephalosaurus robinsonae
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    269462449094001
    [6] † Gephyrosaurus bridensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    251498469079001
    [7] † Cteniogenys sp
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    459313306056001
    [8] † Simoedosaurus lemoinei
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    185560554083001
    [9] † Aenigmastropheus parringtoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    778454301001
    [10] † Protorosaurus speneri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    223536487078001
    [11] † Dinocephalosaurus orientalis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    403327323097001
    [12] † Amotosaurus rotfeldensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    424345337060001
    [13] † Macrocnemus bassanii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    269478445081001
    [14] † Macrocnemus obristi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7297675019001
    [15] † Macrocnemus fuyuanensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    345407399079001
    [16] † Fuyuansaurus acutirostris
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    663137133026001
    [17] † Pectodens zhenyuensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    506256247070001
    [18] † Augustaburiania vatagini
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    737797907001
    [19] † Protanystropheus antiquus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    802222001001
    [20] † Trachelosaurus fischeri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7289180015001
    [21] † Tanystropheus longobardicus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    1066285700106001
    [22] † Tanystropheus haasi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    812101001001
    [23] † Langobadisaurus pandolfii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    475294280067001
    [24] † Tanytrachelos ahynis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    451331310062001
    [25] † Jesairosaurus lehmani
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    410346329078001
    [26] † Pamelaria dolichotrachela
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    198568563062001
    [27] † Azendohsaurus madagaskarensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    87670659072001
    [28] † Azendohsaurus laaroussi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7456867011001
    [29] † Shringasaurus indicus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    376402394053001
    [30] † Malerisaurus robinsonae
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    488312300035001
    [31] † Trilophosaurus buettneri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    103634600092001
    [32] † Spinosuchus caseanus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    418342338067001
    [33] † Teraterpeton hrynewichorum
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    378372368077001
    [34] † Arctosaurus osborni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    809131301001
    [35] † Noteosuchus colletti
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    604202190020001
    [36] † Mesosuchus browni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    80668635079001
    [37] † Howesia browni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    396390363043001
    [38] † Eohyosaurus wolvaardti
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    645163156021001
    [39] † Rhynchosaurus articeps
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    210536521081001
    [40] † Bentonyx sidensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    531237236056001
    [41] † Mesodapedon kuttyi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7753838010001
    [42] † Ammorhynchus navajoi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7524847024001
    [43] † Stenaulorhynchus stockleyi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    145599597081001
    [44] † Brasinorhynchus mariantensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    487286283053001
    [45] † Chanares rhynchosaur
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7664946011001
    [46] † Langeronyx brodiei
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    635145144044001
    [47] † Fodonyx spenceri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    662140140021001
    [48] † Isalorhynchus genovefae
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    231523519071001
    [49] † Hyperodapedon gordoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    123611606094001
    [50] † Hyperodapedon huxleyi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    120611609094001
    [51] † Teyumbaita sulcognathus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    246497494083001
    [52] † Eorasaurus olsoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    794292602001
    [53] † Prolacertoides jimusarensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7197472031001
    [54] † Prolacerta broomi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    38725679073001
    [55] † K australiensis combined
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    691105100032001
    [56] † Boreopricea funerea
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    455325300050001
    [57] † Teyujagua paradoxa
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    508262260055001
    [58] † Antarctanax shackletoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    751676206001
    [59] † Archosaurus rossicus holotype
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    801212101001
    [60] † Archosaurus complete
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7221039902001
    [61] † Proterosuchus fergusi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    177622607037001
    [62] † Proterosuchus goweri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    529282278016001
    [63] † Proterosuchus alexanderi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    256528524042001
    [64] † Chasmatosaurus yuani
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    192594580050001
    [65] † Panchet proterosuchid
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    636183173014001
    [66] † Tasmaniosaurus triassicus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    690126119014001
    [67] † Vonhuenia fredericki
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    799212103001
    [68] † C rossicus combined
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    775464503001
    [69] † C magnus combined
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    793292802001
    [70] † Chasmatosuchus vjushkovi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    796282601001
    [71] † Koilamasuchus gonzalezdiazi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    790322904001
    [72] † Kalisuchus rewanensis holotype
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7684843012001
    [73] † NMQR 3570
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7773535011001
    [74] † Fugusuchus hejiapanensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    580224221021001
    [75] † Sarmatosuchus otschevi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    557264256010001
    [76] † Guchengosuchus shiguaiensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    599206198026001
    [77] † Cuyosuchus huenei
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    613208198012001
    [78] † Garjainia prima
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    155633627040001
    [79] † Garjainia madiba combined
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    433381362022001
    [80] † Erythrosuchus africanus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    95685672048001
    [81] † Shansisuchus shansisuchus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    219566558045001
    [82] † Shansisuchus kuyeheensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7239488012001
    [83] † Chalishevia cothurnata
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    707108105011001
    [84] † Youngosuchus sinensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    446363356021001
    [85] † Uralosaurus combined
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    783343307001
    [86] † Vancleavea campi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    265491486070001
    [87] † Litorosuchus somnii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    343454448032001
    [88] † Asperoris mnyama
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    698117102017001
    [89] † Euparkeria capensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    48753741034001
    [90] † Dorosuchus neoetus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    69812212203001
    [91] † Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    719969509001
    [92] † Osmolskina czatkoviensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    792242407001
    [93] † Osmolskina complete
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    335470460028001
    [94] † Yarasuchus deccanensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    590223219013001
    [95] † Dongusuchus efremovi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    781404002001
    [96] † Teleocrater rhadinus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    486319318019001
    [97] † Spondylosoma absconditum
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    737838204001
    [98] † Proterochampsa barrionuevoi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    271506497055001
    [99] † Proterochampsa nodosa
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    570234228020001
    [100] † Tropidosuchus romeri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    178613598040001
    [101] † Cerritosaurus binsfeldi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    568235230025001
    [102] † Gualosuchus reigi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    262523514045001
    [103] † Chanaresuchus bonapartei
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    98687672049001
    [104] † Pseudochampsa ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    354439433036001
    [105] † Rhadinosuchus gracilis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    689128121013001
    [106] † Archeopelta arborensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    70611311304001
    [107] † Tarjadia ruthae
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    299498494030001
    [108] † Pagosvenator candelariensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    64517617503001
    [109] † Erpetosuchus granti
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    450348344027001
    [110] † Erpetosuchus sp
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7189994011001
    [111] † Dyoplax arenaceus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    763595703001
    [112] † Jaxtasuchus salomoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    596216208019001
    [113] † Doswellia kaltenbachi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    407368362054001
    [114] † Triopticus primus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7181029307001
    [115] † Parasuchus angustifrons
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    542251248033001
    [116] † Parasuchus hislopi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    112678669040001
    [117] † Nicrosaurus kapffi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    271513505046001
    [118] † Smilosuchus spp.
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    139638624054001
    [119] † Diandongosuchus fuyuanensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    347453451025001
    [120] † Wannia scurriensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    613185173032001
    [121] † Ebrachosuchus neukami
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    505286282035001
    [122] † Paleorhinus sawini
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    542256252029001
    [123] † Angistorhinus talainti
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    473316313037001
    [124] † Mystriosuchus planirostris
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    327474455041001
    [125] † Machaeroprosopus pristinus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    347447428048001
    [126] † Redondasaurus spp
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    473323311039001
    [127] † Ornithosuchus woodwardi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    258534527034001
    [128] † Riojasuchus tenuisceps
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    132656644041001
    [129] † Venaticosuchus rusconii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    625182179019001
    [130] † Dynamosuchus collisensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    54128227903001
    [131] † Nundasuchus songeaensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    528287282013001
    [132] † Turfanosuchus dabanensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    263537530028001
    [133] † Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    156639627040001
    [134] † Yonghesuchus sangbiensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    611195192020001
    [135] † Parringtonia gracilis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    340461455028001
    [136] † Otter sandstone archosaur
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    772544803001
    [137] † Aetosauroides scagliai
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    264539529029001
    [138] † Aetosaurus ferratus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    219570565039001
    [139] † Stagonolepis robertsoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    96686686041001
    [140] † Ticinosuchus ferox
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    489318311022001
    [141] † Prestosuchus nyassicus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    65616515908001
    [142] † Dagasuchus santacruzensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    792292902001
    [143] † Qianosuchus mixtus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    321472470032001
    [144] † Arizonasaurus babbitti
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    375414409039001
    [145] † Lotosaurus adentus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    317432426080001
    [146] † Ctenosauriscus koeneni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7733434016001
    [147] † Hypselorhachis mirabilis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    796262502001
    [148] † Waldhaus poposauroid
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    789343301001
    [149] † Vytshegdosuchus zbeshartensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    8139901001
    [150] † Bystrowisuchus flerovi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    805191602001
    [151] † Bromsgroveia walkeri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    782404001001
    [152] † Xilousuchus sapingensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    580225224018001
    [153] † Moenkopi poposauroid
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    777444006001
    [154] † Mandasuchus tanyauchen
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    527283278018001
    [155] † Luperosuchus fractus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    69912312103001
    [156] † Decuriasuchus quartacolonia
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    383413408032001
    [157] † Batrachotomus kupferzellensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    168626617034001
    [158] † Prestosuchus chiniquensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    90703698035001
    [159] † Austriadraco dallavecchiai
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    640184171012001
    [160] † Preondactylus buffarinii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    570215212041001
    [161] † Austriadactylus cristatus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    591206202030001
    [162] † Seazzadactylus venieri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    558229217045001
    [163] † Raeticodactylus filisurensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    576226218029001
    [164] † Carniadactylus rosenfeldi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    481283277065001
    [165] † Peteinosaurus zambellii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    582210204037001
    [166] † Caelestiventus hanseni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    644147143036001
    [167] † Dimorphodon macronyx
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    353407403067001
    [168] † Eudimorphodon ranzii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    487298295041001
    [169] † Rhamphorhynchus muensteri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    1685385310124001
    [170] † Cacibupteryx caribensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    657141139027001
    [171] † Allkaruen koi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    690123121012001
    [172] † Lagerpeton chanarensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    533259256034001
    [173] † Ixalerpeton polesinensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    451344338034001
    [174] † Kongonaphon kely
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    7417470012001
    [175] † PVSJ 883
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    8139901001
    [176] † Dromomeron romeri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    651151143029001
    [177] † Dromomeron gregorii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    68413513504001
    [178] † Dromomeron gigas
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    787313105001
    [179] † Lagosuchus talampayensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    409386379035001
    [180] † Lutungutali sitwensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    786393403001
    [181] † Asilisaurus kongwe
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    312484476035001
    [182] † Nyasasaurus parringtoni
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    772494803001
    [183] † Lewisuchus admixtus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    277525517029001
    [184] † Silesaurus opolensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    175612603045001
    [185] † Heterodontosaurus tucki
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    88654645083001
    [186] † Lesothosaurus diagnosticus
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    99656646075001
    [187] † Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    72706691056001
    [188] † Eoraptor lunensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    164617612046001
    [189] † Buriolestes schultzi
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    106666661056001
    [190] † Saturnalia tupiniquim
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    305476469049001
    [191] † Tawa hallae
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    211554552058001
    [192] † Coelophysis bauri
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    63695688071001
    [193] † Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    84673667072001
    [194] † Scleromochlus taylori i
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    466326314043001
    [195] † Scleromochlus taylori ii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    466334322035001
    [196] † Scleromochlus taylori iii
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    463338326034001
    [197] † Scleromochlus taylori noankle
    Last Modified in 10/26/22
    480321309034001


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    Project overview105
    Documents list53
    Bibliography32
    Taxon list272
    Media views198Media search (164 views); M847705 (34 views);
    Views for media list37
    Specimen list69
    Matrix views157Matrix landing page (151 views); dataset1_Parsimony_TNT_Foffaetal_2022 (6 views);




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project13
    Document downloads5SI Dataset 2. (2 downloads); SI Dataset 1 (2 downloads); SI Dataset 3 (1 download);
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