Project 441: M. Kuntner, J. A. Coddington, G. Hormiga. 2008. Phylogeny of extant nephilid orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae): testing morphological and ethological homologies. Cladistics. 24 (2):147–217.
Specimen: Clitaetra episinoides (unvouchered)
View: Palp

Abstract

The Pantropical spider clade Nephilidae is famous for its extreme sexual size dimorphism, for constructing the largest orb-webs known, and for unusual sexual behaviors, which include emasculation and extreme polygamy. We synthesize the available data for the genera Nephila, Nephilengys, Herennia and Clitaetra to produce the first species level phylogeny of the family. We score 231 characters (197 morphological, 34 behavioral) for 61 taxa: 32 of the 37 known nephilid species plus two Phonognatha and one Deliochus species, 10 tetragnathid outgroups, nine araneids, and one genus each of Nesticidae, Theridiidae, Theridiosomatidae, Linyphiidae, Pimoidae, Uloboridae and Deinopidae. Four most parsimonious trees resulted, among which successive weighting preferred one ingroup topology. Neither an analysis of an alternative data set based on different morphological interpretations, nor separate analyses of morphology and behavior are superior to the total evidence analysis, which we therefore propose as the working hypothesis of nephilid relationships, and the basis for classification. Ingroup generic relationships are (Clitaetra (Herennia (Nephila, Nephilengys))). Deliochus and Phonognatha group with Araneidae rather than Nephilidae. Nephilidae is sister to all other araneoids (contra most recent literature). Ethological data, although difficult to obtain and thus frequently missing for rare taxa, are phylogenetically informative. We explore the evolution of selected morphological and behavioral characters, discuss and redefine the homology of palpal sclerites, disprove semientelegyny in spiders, trace the newly interpreted evolution of the orb web, and show that nephilid genital morphologies coevolve with sexual behaviors and extreme sexual size dimorphism. Phylogenetic interpretations of behavior suggest new insights into spider biology and avenues for future research.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P441, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P441
This project containsMatrices
  • 12 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 61 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 231 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 12730
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 231
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 493
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:231/0
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MorphoBank Project 441

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    MorphoBank Curator
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    Last logged in 08/06/14
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    Maureen Admin
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    Matjaz Kuntner
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1011' (61 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Deinopis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0184176049003
    [2] Uloborus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2191186038003
    [3] Araneus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3202201026003
    [4] Araniella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24183179024003
    [5] Cyclosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3202199026003
    [6] Perilla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28180174025003
    [7] Singafrotypa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42165163024003
    [8] Argiope aurantia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3204201025003
    [9] Argiope argentata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1207202024003
    [10] Acusilas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15192189024003
    [11] Caerostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5192187034003
    [12] Linyphia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1172171058003
    [13] Pimoa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3177175051003
    [14] Steatoda
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1170169060003
    [15] Nesticus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0174172057003
    [16] Epeirotypus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2198194031003
    [17] Tetragnatha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1189185042003
    [18] Glenognatha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17166163048003
    [19] Pachygnatha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24163160044003
    [20] Azilia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2199193030003
    [21] Dolichognatha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3198195030003
    [22] Meta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0204200027003
    [23] Metellina
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9193191030003
    [24] Chrysometa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10194189028003
    [25] Leucauge
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0204198029003
    [26] Opadometa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19185175027003
    [27] Deliochus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4205197026003
    [28] Phonognatha graeffei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2206198026003
    [29] Phonognatha melanopyga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30171167031003
    [30] Clitaetra episinoides
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26190188015003
    [31] Clitaetra perroti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    33184183014003
    [32] Clitaetra clathrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    33183181016003
    [33] Clitaetra irenae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5210206017003
    [34] Clitaetra simoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11910610606003
    [35] Clitaetra thisbe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11810710606003
    [36] Nephila clavipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0220214014003
    [37] Nephila sexpunctata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    36182180013003
    [38] Nephila constricta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26199190011003
    [39] Nephila fenestrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4216214013003
    [40] Nephila senegalensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11209207012003
    [41] Nephila sumptuosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    27191188013003
    [42] Nephila inaurata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2215211014003
    [43] Nephila ardentipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44170170017003
    [44] Nephila turneri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32188187011003
    [45] Nephila komaci
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10612212103003
    [46] Nephila pilipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0218211014003
    [47] Nephila antipodiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25195191013003
    [48] Nephila clavata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    33185185013003
    [49] Nephila plumipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11208200018003
    [50] Nephila edulis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14201194018003
    [51] Herennia multipuncta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21196193014003
    [52] Herennia etruscilla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    23194194014003
    [53] Herennia deelemanae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55157157019003
    [54] Herennia papuana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10205201016003
    [55] Herennia tone
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    107115112010003
    [56] Herennia gagamba
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    101120120010003
    [57] Herennia agnarssoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    112109109010003
    [58] Nephilengys malabarensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9202200020003
    [59] Nephilengys papuana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3207206021003
    [60] Nephilengys cruentata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0210209021003
    [61] Nephilengys borbonica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5206205020003


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