Project 46: Hill, R. V. 2005. Integration of Morphological Data Sets for Phylogenetic Analysis of Amniota: The Importance of Integumentary Characters and Increased Taxonomic Sampling. Systematic Biology. 54 (4):530-547.
Specimen: Aetosauridae indet. (MCZ:No #)
View: Lateral

Abstract

Several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been advanced to explain the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. Traditional morphology-based analyses place turtles among extinct anapsids (reptiles with a solid skull roof), whereas more recent studies of both morphological and molecular data support an origin of turtles from within Diapsida (reptiles with a doubly fenestrated skull roof). Evaluation of these conflicting hypotheses has been hampered by nonoverlapping taxonomic samples and the exclusion of significant taxa from published analyses. Furthermore, although data from soft tissues and anatomical systems such as the integument may be particularly relevant to this problem, they are often excluded from large-scale analyses of morphological systematics. Here, conflicting hypotheses of turtle relationships are tested by (1) combining published data into a supermatrix of morphological characters to address issues of character conflict and missing data; (2) increasing taxonomic sampling by more than doubling the number of operational taxonomic units to test internal relationships within suprageneric ingroup taxa; and (3) increasing character sampling by approximately 25% by adding new data on the osteology and histology of the integument, an anatomical system that has been historically underrepresented in morphological systematics. The morphological data set assembled here represents the largest yet compiled for Amniota. Reevaluation of character data from prior studies of amniote phylogeny favors the hypothesis that turtles indeed have diapsid affinities. Addition of new ingroup taxa alone leads to a decrease in overall phylogenetic resolution, indicating that existing characters used for amniote phylogeny are insufficient to explain the evolution of more highly nested taxa. Incorporation of new data from the soft and osseous components of the integument, however, helps resolve relationships among both basal and highly nested amniote taxa. Analysis of a data set compiled from published sources and data original to this study supports monophyly of Amniota, Synapsida, Reptilia, Parareptilia, Eureptilia, Eosuchia, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Lepidosauria, and Archosauriformes, as well as several more highly nested divisions within the latter two clades. Turtles are here resolved as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Lepidosauria (squamates + Sphenodon), a novel phylogenetic position that nevertheless is consistent with recent molecular and morphological studies that have hypothesized diapsid affinities for this clade. [Amniota; integument; osteoderms; phylogeny; Testudines.]


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P46, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P46
This project containsMatrices
  • 754 Media
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  • 222 Taxa
  • 428 Specimens
  • 368 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1042 MB

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Total scored cells: 17947
Total media associated with cells: 4454
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 368
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 811
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Total unordered/ordered characters:368/0
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MorphoBank Project 46

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    Seth Kaufman
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    Robert Hill
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M147' (80 Taxa)

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    [1] Seymouriidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1332351020015004
    [2] Diadectomorpha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [3] Casea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [4] Ophiacodon retroversus
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    [5] Edaphosauridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [6] Sphenacodontidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [14] Dasypus novemcinctus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [15] Zaedyus pichiy
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    [26] Pseudopalatus
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [28] Protosuchus richardsoni
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    [29] Akanthosuchus langstoni
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    [30] Simosuchus clarki
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    [31] Goniopholis lucasii
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [33] Alligator mississippiensis
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    [40] Stegosaurus stenops
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [43] Rapetosaurus krausei
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    [45] Titanosauridae sp
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [78] Acleistorhinus pteroticus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [79] Lanthanosuchidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25112011700004
    [80] Macroleter poezicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21815015000004


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M7853 (14 views); M7711 (9 views); M7738 (7 views); M7825 (7 views); M7886 (5 views); M7009 (8 views); M7822 (7 views); M7728 (7 views); M8676 (11 views); M7018 (8 views); M7855 (8 views); M8704 (11 views); M7951 (121 views); M6991 (6 views); M8677 (9 views); M6976 (6 views); M7019 (5 views); M7710 (6 views); M6978 (9 views); M6984 (9 views); M7766 (10 views); M8653 (70 views); M7008 (5 views); M6986 (6 views); M8692 (8 views); M7792 (5 views); M7813 (6 views); M7741 (6 views); M6974 (7 views); M8710 (9 views); M6983 (8 views); M6982 (5 views); M6998 (8 views); M7691 (9 views); M7755 (7 views); M7095 (8 views); M7013 (8 views); M7770 (9 views); M6966 (7 views); M6969 (10 views); M6959 (7 views); M7727 (8 views); M7005 (5 views); M7737 (7 views); M8698 (11 views); M7006 (16 views); M7809 (8 views); M7736 (8 views); M7731 (6 views); M6965 (24 views); M7026 (5 views); M7780 (7 views); M8690 (7 views); M7753 (8 views); M8693 (15 views); M7896 (7 views); M7749 (6 views); M7861 (6 views); M8368 (64 views); M7880 (6 views); M7726 (5 views); M7838 (9 views); M8657 (66 views); M7717 (6 views); M7757 (6 views); M8687 (7 views); M7975 (62 views); M7702 (6 views); M8666 (7 views); M7859 (9 views); M7035 (7 views); M7856 (6 views); M8683 (9 views); M8662 (9 views); M7509 (6 views); M8664 (10 views); M8685 (8 views); M8700 (7 views); M8659 (7 views); M7047 (5 views); M8680 (7 views); M8709 (7 views); M8695 (8 views); M7032 (5 views); M7818 (5 views); M7830 (9 views); M8661 (8 views); M8705 (8 views); M7832 (16 views); M8686 (7 views); M7849 (8 views); M8682 (7 views); M7699 (7 views); M7031 (6 views); M7275 (8 views); M7870 (9 views); M7093 (4 views); M7869 (8 views); M7851 (7 views); M7508 (10 views); M7057 (6 views); M7847 (9 views); M7872 (5 views); M7852 (6 views); M7274 (7 views); M7327 (7 views); M7037 (7 views); M7786 (4 views); M8132 (64 views); M7733 (5 views); M7707 (6 views); M6977 (4 views); M7765 (6 views); M7777 (5 views); M7746 (4 views); M7794 (4 views); M7713 (6 views); M7814 (6 views); M7892 (5 views); M7744 (7 views); M7201 (6 views); M6980 (6 views); M7799 (4 views); M7012 (7 views); M7798 (5 views); M7712 (6 views); M7796 (7 views); M7769 (5 views); M7721 (8 views); M7771 (5 views); M6979 (4 views); M7703 (5 views); M7955 (61 views); M7758 (8 views); M7875 (7 views); M7522 (7 views); M7021 (4 views); M7778 (6 views); M7876 (5 views);
    Matrix views1574Matrix landing page (1290 views); Amniote phylogeny (284 views);
    Project overview3222
    Taxon list9042
    Specimen list105542
    Views for media list5403




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project379
    Media downloads90M7063 (1 download); M7067 (3 downloads); M7039 (1 download); M7940 (1 download); M7941 (1 download); M7942 (1 download); M7943 (1 download); M6670 (1 download); M7104 (4 downloads); M6813 (2 downloads); M6951 (1 download); M6779 (3 downloads); M6928 (3 downloads); M6940 (2 downloads); M6953 (1 download); M7059 (1 download); M7081 (1 download); M7082 (1 download); M7899 (3 downloads); M7910 (1 download); M1132 (1 download); M7968 (1 download); M7969 (1 download); M7970 (1 download); M7971 (4 downloads); M7972 (2 downloads); M7973 (2 downloads); M7962 (1 download); M6587 (3 downloads); M7950 (1 download); M7954 (1 download); M7949 (1 download); M249 (2 downloads); M450 (2 downloads); M6983 (1 download); M233 (1 download); M235 (1 download); M241 (1 download); M309 (1 download); M329 (1 download); M330 (1 download); M355 (1 download); M356 (1 download); M358 (1 download); M360 (1 download); M362 (1 download); M365 (1 download); M366 (1 download); M370 (1 download); M371 (1 download); M372 (1 download); M374 (1 download); M376 (1 download); M380 (1 download); M381 (1 download); M382 (1 download); M383 (1 download); M444 (1 download); M445 (1 download); M446 (1 download); M447 (1 download); M448 (1 download); M449 (1 download); M451 (1 download); M452 (1 download); M6588 (1 download); M6673 (1 download); M6674 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads58Amniote phylogeny (58 downloads);
    Project downloads231