Project 46: R. V. Hill. 2005. Integration of Morphological Data Sets for Phylogenetic Analysis of Amniota: The Importance of Integumentary Characters and Increased Taxonomic Sampling. Systematic Biology. 54 (4):530-547.
Specimen: † Peltosaurus granulosus (AMNH:8138)
View: Lateral

Abstract

Several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been advanced to explain the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. Traditional morphology-based analyses place turtles among extinct anapsids (reptiles with a solid skull roof), whereas more recent studies of both morphological and molecular data support an origin of turtles from within Diapsida (reptiles with a doubly fenestrated skull roof). Evaluation of these conflicting hypotheses has been hampered by nonoverlapping taxonomic samples and the exclusion of significant taxa from published analyses. Furthermore, although data from soft tissues and anatomical systems such as the integument may be particularly relevant to this problem, they are often excluded from large-scale analyses of morphological systematics. Here, conflicting hypotheses of turtle relationships are tested by (1) combining published data into a supermatrix of morphological characters to address issues of character conflict and missing data; (2) increasing taxonomic sampling by more than doubling the number of operational taxonomic units to test internal relationships within suprageneric ingroup taxa; and (3) increasing character sampling by approximately 25% by adding new data on the osteology and histology of the integument, an anatomical system that has been historically underrepresented in morphological systematics. The morphological data set assembled here represents the largest yet compiled for Amniota. Reevaluation of character data from prior studies of amniote phylogeny favors the hypothesis that turtles indeed have diapsid affinities. Addition of new ingroup taxa alone leads to a decrease in overall phylogenetic resolution, indicating that existing characters used for amniote phylogeny are insufficient to explain the evolution of more highly nested taxa. Incorporation of new data from the soft and osseous components of the integument, however, helps resolve relationships among both basal and highly nested amniote taxa. Analysis of a data set compiled from published sources and data original to this study supports monophyly of Amniota, Synapsida, Reptilia, Parareptilia, Eureptilia, Eosuchia, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Lepidosauria, and Archosauriformes, as well as several more highly nested divisions within the latter two clades. Turtles are here resolved as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Lepidosauria (squamates + Sphenodon), a novel phylogenetic position that nevertheless is consistent with recent molecular and morphological studies that have hypothesized diapsid affinities for this clade. [Amniota; integument; osteoderms; phylogeny; Testudines.]


Read the article »

Project DOI: 10.7934/P46, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P46
This project containsMatrices
  • 753 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 222 Taxa
  • 428 Specimens
  • 368 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1042 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 17947
Total media associated with cells: 4454
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 368
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 811
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:368/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 46

    This research
    supported by



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Seth Kaufman
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/01/11
    000036800017947
    (17947, 0, 0)
    0000
    Tanya Berardini
    Last logged in 05/02/19
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Robert Hill
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/02/19
    139376731000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Mark Miller
    Full membership
    Last logged in 03/30/09
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Maureen O'Leary
    Full membership
    Last logged in 02/08/11
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M147' (80 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Seymouriidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    1332351020015004
    [2] † Diadectomorpha
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    151224770014304
    [3] † Casea
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14222622600004
    [4] † Ophiacodon retroversus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    137231850014604
    [5] † Edaphosauridae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15321621500004
    [6] † Sphenacodontidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    13223623600004
    [7] † Gorgonopsia
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14522322300004
    [8] † Procynosuchus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    13423623400004
    [9] † Morganucodon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    17519319300004
    [10] † Glyptodon reticulatus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    143226208002204
    [11] † Glyptotherium
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14822222000004
    [12] † Doedicurus giganteus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    144224207001704
    [13] † Panochthus frenzelianus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    143226208001704
    [14] Dasypus novemcinctus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    78295211008104
    [15] Zaedyus pichiy
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7829529000004
    [16] † Captorhinidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    1312391180012104
    [17] † Araeoscelidia
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    13423970023204
    [18] † Paleothyris acadiana
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15321521500004
    [19] † Claudiosaurus germaini
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    18418418400004
    [20] † Younginiformes
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    16521020300004
    [21] † Kuehneosauridae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24812012000004
    [22] † Coahomasuchus kahleorum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    282868600004
    [23] † Desmatosuchus haplocerus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    148221153007804
    [24] † Typothorax coccinarum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    228140119002504
    [25] † Paratypothorax andressorum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    317515100004
    [26] † Pseudopalatus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    156214850013604
    [27] † Rutiodon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    128243191005304
    [28] † Protosuchus richardsoni
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    142226169005804
    [29] † Akanthosuchus langstoni
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    313585500004
    [30] † Simosuchus clarki
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    172197470015104
    [31] † Goniopholis lucasii
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    205163490011404
    [32] † Mahajangasuchus insignis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    164204260018204
    [33] Alligator mississippiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    153541350022904
    [34] Crocodylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    173521940016104
    [35] Caiman crocodilus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    183502270012304
    [36] Gavialis gangeticus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    183502250012704
    [37] † Euoplocephalus tutus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15521421300004
    [38] † Pinacosaurus grangeri
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    166202760012904
    [39] † Sauropelta edwardsorum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15421421400004
    [40] † Stegosaurus stenops
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    12923923900004
    [41] † Scelidosaurus harrisonii
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    20116816700004
    [42] † Scutellosaurus lawleri
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    25811111000004
    [43] † Rapetosaurus krausei
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    342268001804
    [44] † Saltasaurus loricatus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    286838200004
    [45] † Titanosauridae sp
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    343252500004
    [46] † Proganochelys quenstedti
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    141227550017304
    [47] Chelydra serpentina
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    643041950011004
    [48] Pseudemys scripta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68300208009504
    [49] Geochelone
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    693011780012404
    [50] Trionyx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7429529400004
    [51] † Baena
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    2709832007004
    [52] Sphenodon punctatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    553131200019604
    [53] Heloderma
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19350339001004
    [54] Corucia zebrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1535335300004
    [55] Tiliqua
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1735335100004
    [56] Cordylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    153551250023204
    [57] Zonosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    163551790017804
    [58] Anguis fragilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    812871680012004
    [59] Ophisaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7529429300004
    [60] Gerrhonotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1135835700004
    [61] Elgaria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1535335300004
    [62] † Glyptosaurinae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    221147370011304
    [63] † Mesosauridae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    19916916900004
    [64] † Millerettidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    16021220800004
    [65] † Anthodon serrarius
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    12024824800004
    [66] † Scutosaurus karpinskii
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    9927126900004
    [67] † Bradysaurus seeleyi
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    10226626600004
    [68] † Pareiasaurus serridens
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    11025825800004
    [69] † Procolophon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    137234840014904
    [70] † Owenetta rubidgei
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    19817117000004
    [71] † Placodus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    1232451350011304
    [72] † Eosauropterygia
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    22317214500004
    [73] † Cyamodontoidea
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    165212670013904
    [74] † Rhynchosauria
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    151226980011904
    [75] † Trilophosaurus buettneri
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    16820120000004
    [76] † Choristodera
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    16620320200004
    [77] † Prolacertiformes
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15422621400004
    [78] † Acleistorhinus pteroticus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    25411411400004
    [79] † Lanthanosuchidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    25112011700004
    [80] † Macroleter poezicus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    21815015000004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views217085
    Media views83327Media search (5005 views); M8130 (71 views); M7505 (16 views); M329 (384 views); M7910 (170 views); M7894 (10 views); M7063 (123 views); M7062 (11 views); M7895 (5 views); M7900 (131 views); M7745 (6 views); M7901 (74 views); M7909 (68 views); M7913 (101 views); M7922 (65 views); M7898 (11 views); M7899 (433 views); M7059 (42 views); M7060 (9 views); M7067 (24 views); M7068 (14 views); M6849 (224 views); M6963 (84 views); M6962 (42 views); M6859 (227 views); M6813 (440 views); M8134 (73 views); M7023 (10 views); M7806 (11 views); M7802 (13 views); M6925 (128 views); M7800 (8 views); M7817 (9 views); M7808 (13 views); M7801 (12 views); M7803 (10 views); M7938 (76 views); M6964 (125 views); M8706 (13 views); M7940 (47 views); M7941 (59 views); M7942 (50 views); M7943 (82 views); M233 (566 views); M214 (714 views); M6670 (402 views); M7863 (17 views); M7873 (17 views); M7908 (56 views); M7868 (10 views); M7862 (13 views); M7864 (25 views); M7866 (9 views); M7104 (11 views); M1131 (400 views); M8663 (12 views); M218 (588 views); M7939 (88 views); M8133 (98 views); M8135 (180 views); M8138 (85 views); M8139 (87 views); M6779 (185 views); M6782 (178 views); M6798 (217 views); M6800 (222 views); M6928 (149 views); M6929 (121 views); M6940 (155 views); M7084 (12 views); M6953 (13 views); M6951 (203 views); M7081 (11 views); M7082 (11 views); M7083 (8 views); M7919 (49 views); M7945 (521 views); M7944 (64 views); M6992 (31 views); M6995 (23 views); M6996 (23 views); M6993 (21 views); M8129 (102 views); M6939 (234 views); M7094 (7 views); M7915 (65 views); M6967 (24 views); M8136 (78 views); M8669 (39 views); M7043 (8 views); M7061 (51 views); M7089 (8 views); M7086 (9 views); M7205 (9 views); M7324 (9 views); M7845 (10 views); M7891 (7 views); M7905 (112 views); M7893 (11 views); M7897 (11 views); M7889 (10 views); M7902 (151 views); M7914 (91 views); M7923 (66 views); M1130 (467 views); M249 (389 views); M6587 (486 views); M7965 (66 views); M7963 (130 views); M7969 (80 views); M7920 (77 views); M6860 (198 views); M9077 (9 views); M7097 (11 views); M7096 (11 views); M6970 (5 views); M450 (367 views); M7968 (58 views); M7970 (78 views); M7971 (64 views); M7972 (65 views); M7973 (108 views); M7962 (128 views); M7828 (8 views); M459 (375 views); M6668 (383 views); M6856 (193 views); M7950 (51 views); M7949 (58 views); M7954 (54 views); M7952 (73 views); M7289 (11 views); M7325 (9 views); M8131 (126 views); M7106 (9 views); M7098 (12 views); M7695 (11 views); M227 (436 views); M365 (382 views); M6674 (400 views); M457 (383 views); M361 (401 views); M6589 (382 views); M447 (384 views); M381 (372 views); M224 (402 views); M7510 (13 views); M356 (358 views); M373 (469 views); M8679 (11 views); M358 (414 views); M8377 (59 views); M8655 (81 views); M370 (429 views); M378 (428 views); M355 (353 views); M7680 (9 views); M222 (431 views); M253 (431 views); M6890 (229 views); M374 (416 views); M451 (413 views); M1134 (383 views); M364 (421 views); M368 (363 views); M6853 (151 views); M6586 (446 views); M262 (401 views); M243 (414 views); M6915 (296 views); M363 (421 views); M1133 (541 views); M445 (461 views); M6590 (363 views); M460 (378 views); M1129 (449 views); M357 (368 views); M6585 (413 views); M232 (405 views); M6588 (357 views); M444 (387 views); M446 (427 views); M6892 (226 views); M239 (399 views); M258 (379 views); M384 (388 views); M257 (413 views); M330 (391 views); M6952 (189 views); M6927 (177 views); M382 (370 views); M6669 (352 views); M383 (412 views); M7793 (5 views); M7761 (7 views); M7696 (6 views); M7768 (6 views); M360 (361 views); M248 (382 views); M260 (369 views); M7917 (112 views); M7779 (7 views); M366 (378 views); M455 (381 views); M230 (569 views); M362 (361 views); M458 (431 views); M6879 (188 views); M1132 (393 views); M6973 (8 views); M359 (383 views); M6975 (7 views); M234 (566 views); M452 (416 views); M242 (423 views); M369 (402 views); M245 (386 views); M7791 (34 views); M241 (390 views); M7871 (31 views); M6946 (184 views); M237 (374 views); M223 (441 views); M379 (407 views); M6903 (183 views); M6793 (180 views); M6926 (191 views); M8366 (63 views); M7925 (63 views); M6852 (186 views); M7507 (15 views); M255 (407 views); M7704 (8 views); M6869 (136 views); M6902 (121 views); M229 (386 views); M6845 (203 views); M376 (389 views); M238 (412 views); M449 (378 views); M380 (392 views); M250 (376 views); M309 (397 views); M461 (386 views); M235 (371 views); M228 (688 views); M6906 (186 views); M372 (420 views); M6841 (189 views); M7850 (9 views); M7932 (68 views); M6866 (160 views); M6786 (133 views); M7688 (9 views); M7784 (5 views); M8658 (76 views); M371 (416 views); M6938 (144 views); M456 (379 views); M226 (413 views); M6811 (185 views); M6857 (258 views); M6900 (153 views); M6847 (173 views); M7750 (6 views); M7682 (11 views); M6672 (408 views); M6673 (384 views); M6885 (119 views); M6807 (159 views); M6808 (193 views); M6809 (198 views); M6936 (232 views); M7202 (9 views); M6801 (177 views); M7683 (11 views); M7692 (10 views); M6787 (185 views); M7879 (7 views); M7946 (74 views); M6886 (145 views); M6932 (180 views); M6861 (250 views); M246 (389 views); M236 (386 views); M448 (396 views); M462 (379 views); M367 (424 views); M375 (362 views); M6803 (201 views); M6878 (177 views); M6950 (170 views); M6891 (164 views); M6914 (213 views); M6934 (164 views); M6945 (163 views); M6789 (186 views); M6910 (159 views); M6880 (248 views); M6944 (196 views); M6908 (170 views); M6810 (198 views); M6907 (180 views); M6671 (368 views); M6949 (215 views); M6899 (115 views); M8670 (11 views); M6843 (168 views); M6784 (240 views); M6791 (247 views); M6870 (200 views); M6911 (214 views); M6872 (146 views); M6896 (164 views); M6904 (171 views); M6883 (187 views); M7102 (11 views); M6846 (192 views); M6941 (182 views); M6863 (179 views); M6804 (201 views); M6893 (171 views); M6948 (128 views); M6887 (223 views); M7718 (10 views); M8688 (12 views); M6882 (180 views); M6794 (204 views); M6858 (243 views); M6988 (7 views); M6850 (163 views); M6802 (204 views); M6894 (173 views); M6931 (193 views); M6854 (165 views); M6912 (175 views); M6805 (256 views); M6895 (195 views); M6783 (166 views); M6785 (200 views); M6901 (169 views); M6851 (189 views); M7506 (11 views); M6788 (194 views); M6933 (228 views); M6937 (198 views); M6990 (8 views); M6994 (27 views); M6905 (234 views); M7884 (6 views); M6864 (174 views); M7028 (8 views); M6930 (135 views); M6942 (177 views); M7948 (72 views); M6943 (310 views); M7010 (5 views); M6799 (210 views); M6795 (198 views); M6884 (232 views); M6947 (163 views); M6855 (218 views); M7934 (73 views); M6790 (216 views); M6792 (198 views); M6797 (163 views); M6806 (159 views); M6812 (191 views); M6842 (159 views); M6848 (197 views); M6862 (206 views); M6868 (189 views); M6881 (208 views); M6888 (204 views); M6889 (154 views); M6897 (176 views); M6898 (147 views); M6913 (168 views); M6935 (189 views); M8373 (66 views); M7694 (10 views); M7826 (10 views); M8691 (10 views); M8702 (11 views); M7689 (8 views); M7725 (7 views); M8711 (11 views); M7090 (11 views); M6955 (8 views); M6999 (6 views); M7700 (6 views); M8675 (9 views); M7740 (5 views); M7953 (94 views); M7011 (6 views); M7716 (7 views); M7687 (9 views); M7783 (5 views); M7058 (7 views); M7709 (6 views); M7959 (72 views); M7724 (6 views); M7811 (11 views); M7756 (7 views); M7747 (6 views); M7041 (11 views); M7271 (12 views); M7046 (11 views); M6985 (7 views); M8137 (74 views); M7764 (6 views); M7754 (6 views); M7270 (8 views); M7273 (11 views); M8370 (120 views); M7835 (16 views); M8667 (12 views); M7714 (6 views); M7706 (7 views); M7091 (9 views); M8367 (76 views); M7752 (4 views); M7003 (6 views); M7025 (9 views); M7708 (10 views); M7735 (8 views); M7015 (8 views); M7956 (62 views); M7882 (10 views); M7829 (8 views); M7739 (8 views); M7763 (7 views); M6961 (7 views); M8654 (75 views); M7881 (10 views); M6997 (8 views); M7887 (6 views); M7844 (7 views); M7821 (14 views); M7848 (9 views); M7722 (8 views); M6968 (7 views); M7933 (72 views); M8707 (13 views); M7776 (8 views); M7039 (12 views); M7720 (6 views); M7787 (6 views); M7715 (5 views); M6989 (5 views); M7836 (9 views); M7681 (9 views); M7042 (8 views); M6972 (10 views); M7926 (81 views); M7729 (8 views); M8671 (12 views); M7878 (10 views); M7795 (9 views); M7789 (7 views); M7268 (10 views); M7860 (10 views); M6954 (7 views); M8673 (10 views); M7007 (7 views); M7804 (10 views); M7890 (4 views); M6971 (9 views); M8374 (134 views); M8379 (61 views); M7511 (11 views); M7045 (8 views); M7697 (8 views); M7865 (11 views); M7937 (81 views); M7974 (68 views); M7921 (66 views); M7805 (7 views); M7785 (6 views); M8701 (8 views); M7839 (6 views); M6956 (7 views); M7782 (8 views); M7960 (64 views); M7000 (6 views); M7014 (7 views); M7748 (9 views); M8672 (11 views); M7967 (105 views); M8372 (81 views); M7790 (7 views); M8697 (8 views); M7840 (11 views); M7276 (10 views); M7701 (6 views); M7775 (5 views); M6957 (7 views); M7807 (9 views); M8674 (8 views); M7732 (7 views); M8689 (10 views); M6958 (5 views); M7774 (8 views); M7002 (6 views); M7759 (7 views); M7874 (12 views); M7877 (8 views); M8694 (12 views); M7684 (9 views); M7698 (11 views); M7272 (14 views); M7017 (8 views); M7857 (10 views); M7034 (14 views); M7773 (6 views); M7027 (8 views); M7841 (7 views); M7823 (10 views); M7816 (5 views); M7819 (8 views); M6987 (7 views); M7788 (8 views); M7085 (9 views); M7833 (7 views); M7797 (8 views); M7854 (9 views); M7781 (8 views); M7101 (9 views); M7044 (7 views); M8708 (8 views); M7743 (7 views); M7820 (8 views); M7751 (8 views); M8703 (11 views); M7328 (12 views); M8126 (60 views); M6981 (9 views); M7049 (8 views); M7961 (58 views); M7004 (5 views); M7016 (6 views); M8699 (9 views); M6960 (5 views); M7834 (7 views); M7734 (6 views); M7815 (7 views); M7843 (8 views); M7686 (10 views); M7760 (8 views); M7719 (6 views); M7742 (6 views); M7824 (8 views); M7690 (8 views); M7964 (53 views); M7103 (10 views); M8127 (69 views); M7730 (8 views); M8668 (14 views); M7966 (107 views); M8678 (8 views); M7827 (7 views); M8375 (55 views); M7772 (6 views); M7935 (67 views); M7029 (9 views); M7723 (5 views); M7033 (9 views); M8369 (79 views); M7957 (74 views); M8371 (151 views); M7976 (126 views); M8378 (91 views); M7947 (63 views); M7924 (128 views); M8656 (62 views); M8376 (68 views); M7030 (11 views); M7269 (10 views); M7936 (50 views); M7519 (11 views); M7040 (7 views); M7931 (108 views); M7705 (9 views); M7326 (9 views); M7916 (101 views); M7685 (9 views); M7088 (11 views); M7036 (9 views); M8696 (8 views); M7918 (122 views); M7810 (9 views); M7858 (7 views); M7846 (6 views); M7837 (8 views); M7842 (21 views); M7092 (8 views); M8660 (10 views); M7020 (7 views); M7867 (8 views); M7693 (8 views); M7885 (9 views); M7812 (9 views); M7888 (10 views); M7883 (11 views); M7277 (10 views); M7001 (8 views); M8681 (8 views); M8665 (12 views); M7048 (7 views); M8684 (9 views); M8140 (145 views); M7831 (8 views); M7767 (10 views); M7762 (7 views); M7100 (13 views); M7038 (6 views); M7853 (14 views); M7711 (9 views); M7738 (7 views); M7825 (7 views); M7886 (5 views); M7009 (8 views); M7822 (7 views); M7728 (7 views); M8676 (11 views); M7018 (8 views); M7855 (8 views); M8704 (12 views); M7951 (122 views); M6991 (6 views); M8677 (9 views); M6976 (6 views); M7019 (5 views); M7710 (6 views); M6978 (9 views); M6984 (9 views); M7766 (10 views); M8653 (70 views); M7008 (5 views); M6986 (6 views); M8692 (9 views); M7792 (5 views); M7813 (6 views); M7741 (6 views); M6974 (7 views); M8710 (11 views); M6983 (8 views); M6982 (5 views); M6998 (8 views); M7691 (9 views); M7755 (7 views); M7095 (8 views); M7013 (8 views); M7770 (9 views); M6966 (7 views); M6969 (10 views); M6959 (7 views); M7727 (8 views); M7005 (5 views); M7737 (7 views); M8698 (11 views); M7006 (16 views); M7809 (8 views); M7736 (8 views); M7731 (6 views); M6965 (25 views); M7026 (5 views); M7780 (7 views); M8690 (7 views); M7753 (8 views); M8693 (15 views); M7896 (7 views); M7749 (6 views); M7861 (6 views); M8368 (67 views); M7880 (6 views); M7726 (5 views); M7838 (9 views); M8657 (66 views); M7717 (6 views); M7757 (6 views); M8687 (8 views); M7975 (64 views); M7702 (6 views); M8666 (7 views); M7859 (9 views); M7035 (7 views); M7856 (6 views); M8683 (11 views); M8662 (9 views); M7509 (6 views); M8664 (11 views); M8685 (12 views); M8700 (7 views); M8659 (7 views); M7047 (5 views); M8680 (7 views); M8709 (7 views); M8695 (11 views); M7032 (5 views); M7818 (5 views); M7830 (9 views); M8661 (8 views); M8705 (8 views); M7832 (20 views); M8686 (8 views); M7849 (8 views); M8682 (7 views); M7699 (7 views); M7031 (6 views); M7275 (8 views); M7870 (9 views); M7093 (4 views); M7869 (8 views); M7851 (7 views); M7508 (10 views); M7057 (6 views); M7847 (9 views); M7872 (5 views); M7852 (6 views); M7274 (7 views); M7327 (7 views); M7037 (7 views); M7786 (4 views); M8132 (65 views); M7733 (5 views); M7707 (6 views); M6977 (4 views); M7765 (6 views); M7777 (5 views); M7746 (4 views); M7794 (4 views); M7713 (6 views); M7814 (6 views); M7892 (5 views); M7744 (7 views); M7201 (6 views); M6980 (6 views); M7799 (4 views); M7012 (7 views); M7798 (5 views); M7712 (6 views); M7796 (7 views); M7769 (5 views); M7721 (8 views); M7771 (5 views); M6979 (4 views); M7703 (5 views); M7955 (61 views); M7758 (8 views); M7875 (7 views); M7522 (7 views); M7021 (4 views); M7778 (6 views); M7876 (5 views);
    Matrix views1763Matrix landing page (1451 views); Amniote phylogeny (312 views);
    Project overview3565
    Taxon list11086
    Specimen list111606
    Views for media list5731
    Bibliography7




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project408
    Media downloads90M7063 (1 download); M7067 (3 downloads); M7039 (1 download); M7940 (1 download); M7941 (1 download); M7942 (1 download); M7943 (1 download); M6670 (1 download); M7104 (4 downloads); M6813 (2 downloads); M6951 (1 download); M6779 (3 downloads); M6928 (3 downloads); M6940 (2 downloads); M6953 (1 download); M7059 (1 download); M7081 (1 download); M7082 (1 download); M7899 (3 downloads); M7910 (1 download); M1132 (1 download); M7968 (1 download); M7969 (1 download); M7970 (1 download); M7971 (4 downloads); M7972 (2 downloads); M7973 (2 downloads); M7962 (1 download); M6587 (3 downloads); M7950 (1 download); M7954 (1 download); M7949 (1 download); M249 (2 downloads); M450 (2 downloads); M6983 (1 download); M233 (1 download); M235 (1 download); M241 (1 download); M309 (1 download); M329 (1 download); M330 (1 download); M355 (1 download); M356 (1 download); M358 (1 download); M360 (1 download); M362 (1 download); M365 (1 download); M366 (1 download); M370 (1 download); M371 (1 download); M372 (1 download); M374 (1 download); M376 (1 download); M380 (1 download); M381 (1 download); M382 (1 download); M383 (1 download); M444 (1 download); M445 (1 download); M446 (1 download); M447 (1 download); M448 (1 download); M449 (1 download); M451 (1 download); M452 (1 download); M6588 (1 download); M6673 (1 download); M6674 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads65Amniote phylogeny (65 downloads);
    Project downloads253