Project 48: M. Spaulding, M. A. O'Leary, J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution. PLOS ONE. 9 (4):1-14.
Specimen: Hippopotamus amphibius (AMNH/Mammalogy:24282)
View: distal skull

Abstract

**Curated images associated with MorphoBank Project 321 and collected as part of the Spaulding et al. paper, with many images associated to characters and cells. NOTE - matrix may not match that of project 321 exactly, but is a near final version. See Project 321 for final total evidence matrix***

Abstract
Background: Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, (Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the (raoellid artiodactylan (Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to (Indohyus, with (Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of (Mesonychia and (Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, (Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces (Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result.

Conclusions/Significance: Integration of new fossil material of (Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade (Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of (Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several
cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.



Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007062

Project DOI: 10.7934/P48, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P48
This project containsMatrices
  • 1529 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 4 Documents
  • 1 Folio
  • 148 Taxa
  • 653 Specimens
  • 690 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2.97G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 38135
Total media associated with cells: 7141
Total labels associated with cell media: 2160
Characters
Total characters: 690
Total characters with associated media: 1
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1515
Total character states with associated media: 23
Total character states with media with labels:22
Total unordered/ordered characters:690/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 48

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of California Riverside

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Stony Brook University



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Maureen O'Leary
    Project Administrator
    12354364262690550121832283
    (27379, 375, 4529)
    168164211621
    MorphoBank Curator
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Seth Kaufman
    5000000016
    (5, 0, 11)
    0031
    Maeva Orliac
    Full membership
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Maria Passarotti
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Michelle Spaulding
    Character annotater
    1089100445260
    (4618, 347, 295)
    5110


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M188' (80 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 01/29/14
    93492510106143224
    [2] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    45604480434423573
    [3] Ovis aries
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    56591480455051633
    [4] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    6157869051297753
    [5] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    7057185049200183
    [6] Giraffa camelopardalis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    47600490462231023
    [7] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    9255334045173163
    [8] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    86548500592421283
    [9] Tragulus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    7656851048143143
    [10] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    68372470250130514
    [11] Monodon monoceros
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    187341290163315344
    [12] Inia geoffrensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1843404601672474
    [13] Pontoporia blainvillei
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1293114002514923
    [14] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1773355201784974
    [15] Ziphius cavirostris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1683585601666254
    [16] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1743358601823464
    [17] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    48582580631901113
    [18] Choeropsis liberiensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    6156386266146143
    [19] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    5257992260195923
    [20] Babyrousa babyrussa
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    8753271072127103
    [21] Potamochoerus porcus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    84529430795461123
    [22] Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9652263076138123
    [23] Tayassu tajacu
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    74543771732421023
    [24] Camelus dromedarius
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    5457382064118143
    [25] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1345073634625883
    [26] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    178437381749574
    [27] Tapirus terrestris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    815396607112094
    [28] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    3759566058177254
    [29] Ailurus fulgens
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    89558555145004
    [30] Canis latrans
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    81576567033514
    [31] Nandinia binotata
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    96546542150004
    [32] Felis silvestris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    56502445113160214
    [33] Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    92565564132004
    [34] † Hyopsodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19944334049004
    [35] † Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26837619047004
    [36] † Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2572892971375214
    [37] † Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5498789451804
    [38] † Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    163421422104114
    [39] † Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    270367301521444
    [40] † Pachyaena ossifraga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    432248217823104
    [41] † Sinonyx jiashanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    177422523898864
    [42] † Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2053994328482124
    [43] † Dissacus praenuntius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    307285265937584
    [44] † Dissacus zanabazari
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    268383265372424
    [45] † Harpagolestes orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    406216145638284
    [46] † Harpagolestes uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3382741314641554
    [47] † Hapalodectes hetangensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    353289191137004
    [48] † Helohyus plicodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4462081653492103
    [49] † Ambulocetus natans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    440126113490003
    [50] † Gobiohyus orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    380274235315083
    [51] † Leptomeryx
    Last Modified in 01/22/14
    142511311381663
    [52] † Poebrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    109526352534763
    [53] † Agriochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1225172245156123
    [54] † Merycoidodon sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    117527263454793
    [55] † Diacodexis pakistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18941526581003
    [56] † Diacodexis sp.
    Last Modified in 05/13/15
    395258171383623
    [57] † Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2204241754415113
    [58] † Archaeotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1245201824648113
    [59] † Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    216443193311483
    [60] † Microbunodon minimum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    312308543141003
    [61] † Merycopotamus dissimilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    338287214125643
    [62] † Xenohyus venitor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55111611211003
    [63] † Anthracokeryx ulnifer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    36428775344093
    [64] † Libycosaurus petrocchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55411451111003
    [65] † Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2983841806414114
    [66] † Siamotherium krabiense
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    567100220333304
    [67] † Cainotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12851323049003
    [68] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    232417211432204
    [69] † Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    500147173212004
    [70] † Brachyhyops wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    46817627395193
    [71] † Achaenodon uintensis
    Last Modified in 05/13/15
    3363023143812983
    [72] † Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    476148518483834
    [73] † Eoconodon heilprinianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42626013422212144
    [74] † Protoceras celer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2774053361869123
    [75] † Indohyus indirae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    453203103241149123
    [76] † Vulpavus profectus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    163463461597004
    [77] † Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1784384385816004
    [78] † Hyaenodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    128500499576004
    [79] † Patriofelis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    994444448562004
    [80] † Proviverra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    964714708340004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views415204
    Project overview3935
    Media views108947Media search (8753 views); M872 (447 views); M928 (249 views); M878 (493 views); M961 (266 views); M784 (582 views); M839 (506 views); M859 (472 views); M7286 (31 views); M918 (270 views); M846 (485 views); M921 (278 views); M7319 (22 views); M907 (281 views); M7254 (25 views); M790 (566 views); M6778 (26 views); M953 (259 views); M972 (290 views); M835 (477 views); M925 (269 views); M6748 (287 views); M7288 (34 views); M868 (471 views); M906 (268 views); M838 (529 views); M7321 (25 views); M7314 (25 views); M6923 (28 views); M7318 (28 views); M807 (571 views); M858 (516 views); M829 (471 views); M884 (488 views); M9059 (32 views); M783 (577 views); M825 (467 views); M8476 (23 views); M8452 (15 views); M8479 (21 views); M8501 (22 views); M8944 (25 views); M8486 (21 views); M8942 (34 views); M8906 (31 views); M8554 (33 views); M7386 (25 views); M8496 (16 views); M7375 (19 views); M8473 (21 views); M7390 (24 views); M845 (487 views); M809 (572 views); M861 (501 views); M7370 (14 views); M811 (540 views); M9064 (25 views); M9072 (24 views); M9136 (19 views); M9165 (25 views); M9128 (29 views); M9186 (22 views); M9173 (25 views); M8390 (24 views); M9177 (22 views); M789 (604 views); M864 (488 views); M800 (559 views); M9188 (18 views); M7368 (19 views); M8417 (15 views); M9130 (20 views); M9112 (29 views); M9110 (24 views); M9180 (23 views); M9052 (23 views); M9111 (23 views); M8483 (26 views); M8477 (17 views); M7371 (16 views); M781 (622 views); M9175 (22 views); M9166 (23 views); M8458 (18 views); M9076 (23 views); M844 (474 views); M7380 (19 views); M7391 (19 views); M7372 (29 views); M782 (595 views); M847 (487 views); M803 (562 views); M855 (493 views); M828 (524 views); M8495 (32 views); M8423 (17 views); M7373 (22 views); M805 (549 views); M798 (524 views); M8391 (24 views); M14945 (2 views); M15068 (2 views); M15076 (2 views); M14955 (2 views); M15050 (2 views); M15051 (2 views); M14941 (3 views); M16493 (2 views); M14964 (3 views); M14944 (2 views); M14961 (2 views); M14943 (2 views); M15052 (2 views); M15053 (2 views); M14958 (2 views); M15054 (2 views); M14967 (2 views); M16494 (2 views); M15045 (2 views); M14948 (2 views); M16479 (2 views); M15120 (3 views); M14953 (3 views); M9149 (18 views); M9055 (32 views); M15077 (2 views); M15062 (2 views); M9073 (27 views); M9181 (50 views); M9118 (25 views); M9176 (32 views); M9187 (21 views); M9150 (15 views); M15264 (2 views); M826 (514 views); M976 (282 views); M7367 (18 views); M857 (528 views); M849 (512 views); M9129 (25 views); M15046 (2 views); M9159 (18 views); M8482 (20 views); M9194 (13 views); M830 (459 views); M986 (287 views); M8490 (25 views); M9215 (4 views); M786 (582 views); M981 (288 views); M9203 (13 views); M9125 (17 views); M8387 (26 views); M8480 (18 views); M871 (499 views); M9179 (22 views); M17088 (2 views); M817 (587 views); M9045 (27 views); M9172 (24 views); M9204 (22 views); M883 (410 views); M16324 (2 views); M797 (602 views); M14960 (2 views); M17123 (2 views); M16498 (2 views); M17062 (2 views); M17118 (2 views); M17064 (3 views); M832 (498 views); M848 (475 views); M16554 (2 views); M808 (561 views); M875 (505 views); M827 (457 views); M863 (503 views); M862 (416 views); M17117 (2 views); M17083 (3 views); M16553 (3 views); M17028 (2 views); M831 (480 views); M815 (536 views); M16560 (2 views); M17070 (4 views); M822 (515 views); M834 (437 views); M833 (500 views); M16568 (2 views); M819 (537 views); M17073 (3 views); M793 (548 views); M813 (581 views); M791 (634 views); M882 (493 views); M775 (614 views); M17059 (2 views); M16561 (2 views); M14954 (2 views); M9143 (23 views); M814 (566 views); M16557 (2 views); M9174 (20 views); M812 (519 views); M16556 (2 views); M17124 (2 views); M17043 (2 views); M9139 (24 views); M866 (510 views); M17017 (3 views); M15071 (2 views); M778 (614 views); M901 (290 views); M16564 (3 views); M850 (552 views); M804 (532 views); M9325 (3 views); M799 (556 views); M8400 (15 views); M17037 (2 views); M15048 (3 views); M780 (593 views); M879 (451 views); M17044 (2 views); M9286 (4 views); M856 (489 views); M14956 (2 views); M16497 (2 views); M15058 (3 views); M16549 (2 views); M17045 (2 views); M9283 (6 views); M14937 (2 views); M810 (529 views); M9137 (22 views); M776 (624 views); M9132 (23 views); M8397 (19 views); M787 (554 views); M8401 (16 views); M886 (473 views); M877 (445 views); M8472 (20 views); M16551 (2 views); M801 (558 views); M17400 (1 view); M17428 (2 views); M17137 (2 views); M17393 (2 views); M17443 (2 views); M17142 (2 views); M17150 (3 views); M17346 (2 views); M17392 (2 views); M17355 (2 views); M17382 (3 views); M17352 (2 views); M17145 (2 views); M17445 (2 views); M17446 (2 views); M17436 (2 views); M17431 (2 views); M17390 (2 views); M17397 (2 views); M17434 (3 views); M17144 (2 views); M17375 (2 views); M17374 (2 views); M17398 (2 views); M17391 (3 views); M17441 (2 views); M17148 (2 views); M17401 (2 views); M17444 (2 views); M17396 (2 views); M17383 (2 views); M17129 (2 views); M17134 (2 views); M17370 (2 views); M8399 (16 views); M17368 (2 views); M8421 (19 views); M16490 (2 views); M9169 (19 views); M7378 (18 views); M7388 (18 views); M842 (498 views); M7365 (22 views); M7369 (26 views); M9171 (19 views); M7374 (25 views); M9193 (22 views); M15043 (2 views); M8474 (15 views); M9170 (19 views); M14947 (2 views); M14957 (3 views); M14962 (2 views); M17345 (2 views); M17378 (3 views); M17349 (2 views); M17427 (2 views); M17350 (2 views); M17394 (1 view); M774 (583 views); M17130 (3 views); M9056 (18 views); M17338 (1 view); M17430 (2 views); M8418 (22 views); M17369 (3 views); M9134 (20 views); M17395 (2 views); M9198 (24 views); M17387 (2 views); M8455 (17 views); M795 (550 views); M7387 (22 views); M7364 (17 views); M17342 (2 views); M17081 (2 views); M15070 (3 views); M14935 (2 views); M17023 (2 views); M15060 (2 views); M14836 (2 views); M15061 (3 views); M17051 (6 views); M16495 (3 views); M15042 (2 views); M17042 (2 views); M16477 (2 views); M14963 (2 views); M15064 (2 views); M14933 (2 views); M17066 (2 views); M15837 (3 views); M17049 (2 views); M14834 (3 views); M14959 (2 views); M17018 (2 views); M16501 (2 views); M14835 (2 views); M15063 (2 views); M17347 (2 views); M9163 (25 views); M17046 (2 views); M17354 (3 views); M17912 (4 views); M17839 (3 views); M17841 (2 views); M17474 (2 views); M17910 (3 views); M17449 (2 views); M17784 (2 views); M17840 (2 views); M17820 (2 views); M17814 (6 views); M18101 (2 views); M17936 (3 views); M17976 (2 views); M18239 (2 views); M18093 (3 views); M17925 (2 views); M17928 (2 views); M18271 (3 views); M18269 (2 views); M18240 (3 views); M18099 (2 views); M18264 (4 views); M18250 (2 views); M17468 (3 views); M18104 (2 views); M17906 (3 views); M17974 (2 views); M18095 (3 views); M17476 (2 views); M17469 (3 views); M17843 (3 views); M17772 (3 views); M18252 (3 views); M17458 (2 views); M18295 (3 views); M18335 (3 views); M18444 (3 views); M18297 (2 views); M18288 (3 views); M18285 (2 views); M18327 (2 views); M18441 (4 views); M18277 (2 views); M18490 (2 views); M18292 (4 views); M18439 (3 views); M17809 (3 views); M17919 (3 views); M18304 (2 views); M18455 (2 views); M18266 (3 views); M17923 (3 views); M17846 (3 views); M18267 (2 views); M17479 (3 views); M17452 (2 views); M18329 (2 views); M17824 (3 views); M17913 (2 views); M17837 (2 views); M18244 (2 views); M18254 (3 views); M18445 (2 views); M18275 (2 views); M17454 (3 views); M18488 (2 views); M18238 (3 views); M17854 (2 views); M18325 (2 views); M17932 (5 views); M18272 (2 views); M18245 (3 views); M18331 (2 views); M18253 (2 views); M18318 (2 views); M18342 (2 views); M18447 (2 views); M18293 (4 views); M17941 (6 views); M18233 (2 views); M18290 (1 view); M18496 (1 view); M18300 (1 view); M17920 (2 views); M18107 (2 views); M18260 (2 views); M18336 (1 view); M18493 (1 view); M18339 (1 view); M18259 (2 views); M18091 (2 views); M18241 (2 views); M17852 (3 views); M17771 (2 views); M17828 (2 views); M17916 (1 view); M17847 (2 views); M17810 (2 views); M17475 (3 views); M18314 (1 view); M17850 (2 views); M17813 (2 views); M18338 (2 views); M17929 (3 views); M18248 (2 views); M17926 (3 views); M17842 (2 views); M18484 (1 view); M17808 (5 views); M17465 (2 views); M18442 (1 view); M18258 (2 views); M18341 (2 views); M18322 (1 view); M18108 (3 views); M17806 (1 view); M18463 (2 views); M18280 (1 view); M17456 (1 view); M18247 (6 views); M18334 (1 view); M18296 (2 views); M17977 (3 views); M18489 (2 views); M18097 (2 views); M17849 (2 views); M17823 (1 view); M18311 (1 view); M18316 (1 view); M14949 (2 views); M17128 (2 views); M16550 (2 views); M17074 (3 views); M9184 (11 views); M9191 (21 views); M17121 (3 views); M876 (496 views); M16562 (2 views); M14832 (2 views); M792 (522 views); M9190 (25 views); M18100 (3 views); M16468 (3 views); M14934 (3 views); M17473 (2 views); M17048 (2 views); M8494 (27 views); M17025 (2 views); M17429 (2 views); M9099 (24 views); M17127 (3 views); M17477 (1 view); M17933 (4 views); M8489 (18 views); M17975 (3 views); M17140 (2 views); M14966 (2 views); M18449 (2 views); M18287 (1 view); M17472 (3 views); M17471 (1 view); M18235 (3 views); M17836 (1 view); M17035 (2 views); M9135 (24 views); M17119 (2 views); M17058 (2 views); M18305 (1 view); M17805 (4 views); M17047 (2 views); M17126 (2 views); M9145 (16 views); M17371 (2 views); M17859 (1 view); M17373 (2 views); M18289 (3 views); M17770 (2 views); M17348 (2 views); M17377 (2 views); M18315 (2 views); M17021 (2 views); M18503 (4 views); M9127 (16 views); M17031 (2 views); M17848 (3 views); M17039 (2 views); M18454 (1 view); M9161 (27 views); M17120 (3 views); M17832 (1 view); M860 (511 views); M885 (492 views); M17463 (1 view); M9141 (19 views); M17845 (2 views); M17922 (2 views); M16502 (2 views); M17450 (2 views); M9146 (30 views); M18324 (1 view); M19728 (3 views); M19454 (3 views); M18554 (4 views); M19217 (3 views); M18556 (2 views); M19325 (4 views); M19224 (4 views); M18517 (4 views); M18586 (3 views); M19192 (6 views); M19443 (3 views); M19218 (4 views); M19226 (3 views); M18504 (4 views); M18515 (4 views); M18501 (4 views); M18561 (3 views); M19233 (4 views); M19311 (4 views); M19216 (2 views); M18552 (3 views); M19446 (4 views); M19220 (3 views); M18509 (4 views); M18512 (3 views); M18581 (4 views); M18558 (3 views); M18521 (14 views); M19227 (3 views); M18547 (4 views); M18553 (1 view); M18502 (2 views); M18514 (3 views); M19447 (2 views); M19727 (1 view); M19453 (1 view); M19308 (13 views); M19441 (1 view); M19215 (2 views); M19223 (2 views); M18511 (2 views); M19189 (4 views); M18555 (1 view); M19190 (3 views); M18510 (2 views); M18518 (3 views); M19228 (1 view); M18562 (3 views); M19442 (6 views); M8478 (23 views); M17040 (2 views); M14936 (3 views); M9044 (21 views); M17930 (4 views); M18499 (2 views); M18251 (2 views); M9144 (32 views); M9168 (23 views); M796 (596 views); M17768 (1 view); M17340 (4 views); M17026 (2 views); M18583 (3 views); M7381 (15 views); M7383 (24 views); M19230 (2 views); M18326 (2 views); M17139 (2 views); M19310 (3 views); M17851 (2 views); M17143 (2 views); M18242 (4 views); M18448 (1 view); M17341 (2 views); M18546 (1 view); M18094 (2 views); M17437 (2 views); M18492 (2 views); M9189 (22 views); M14938 (6 views); M15836 (3 views); M16491 (2 views); M17388 (2 views); M18320 (2 views); M19214 (4 views); M18487 (2 views); M17442 (2 views); M17067 (2 views); M17979 (2 views); M16558 (3 views); M15069 (2 views); M7363 (19 views); M9126 (22 views); M8492 (21 views); M17924 (2 views); M17132 (2 views); M18497 (2 views); M9160 (24 views); M14951 (2 views); M18491 (2 views); M17927 (3 views); M8457 (20 views); M8460 (26 views); M843 (561 views); M17462 (1 view); M17827 (1 view); M16559 (2 views); M18457 (1 view); M19319 (4 views); M18559 (2 views); M19187 (3 views); M17807 (2 views); M17146 (2 views); M18340 (1 view); M9185 (36 views); M17802 (1 view); M17938 (2 views); M9124 (19 views); M17822 (3 views); M18505 (1 view); M17478 (1 view); M821 (516 views); M19213 (4 views); M777 (622 views); M9075 (26 views); M18270 (2 views); M18230 (3 views); M8459 (23 views); M18274 (2 views); M17972 (2 views); M836 (438 views); M7379 (18 views); M17027 (3 views); M18344 (1 view); M18453 (1 view); M17379 (2 views); M19361 (1 view); M17801 (4 views); M841 (454 views); M9158 (20 views); M8497 (16 views); M18508 (2 views); M794 (579 views); M18229 (3 views); M16547 (2 views); M17316 (2 views); M16548 (2 views); M17918 (3 views); M15073 (2 views); M17831 (3 views); M9053 (32 views); M8451 (18 views); M779 (612 views); M18257 (2 views); M19221 (2 views); M17339 (2 views); M17131 (2 views); M18102 (2 views); M16478 (2 views); M18548 (2 views); M8393 (22 views); M806 (539 views); M8416 (21 views); M880 (476 views); M17829 (1 view); M18337 (1 view); M17022 (3 views); M17426 (2 views); M8394 (18 views); M17136 (3 views); M8503 (19 views); M17063 (4 views); M17907 (2 views); M17078 (3 views); M9133 (24 views); M14939 (3 views); M867 (446 views); M18309 (2 views); M19448 (4 views); M17381 (2 views); M15055 (2 views); M14707 (3 views); M17034 (4 views); M18263 (3 views); M17135 (3 views); M7385 (18 views); M18319 (2 views); M17940 (5 views); M785 (563 views); M818 (522 views); M18302 (2 views); M17389 (2 views); M17075 (2 views); M14942 (2 views); M8383 (36 views); M9147 (20 views); M17767 (2 views); M17855 (1 view); M9061 (22 views); M17459 (2 views); M7384 (17 views); M9123 (21 views); M18294 (4 views); M19726 (5 views); M8475 (16 views); M16566 (2 views); M9202 (18 views); M17467 (3 views); M873 (473 views); M874 (432 views); M15044 (2 views); M17030 (2 views); M18261 (3 views); M17769 (2 views); M18237 (2 views); M18461 (1 view); M17911 (1 view); M18464 (2 views); M18520 (4 views); M15835 (2 views); M18105 (2 views); M17453 (2 views); M9192 (20 views); M16500 (2 views); M18092 (3 views); M16555 (2 views); M865 (461 views); M17909 (2 views); M17433 (3 views); M17812 (1 view); M15057 (2 views); M18585 (2 views); M18234 (3 views); M17461 (3 views); M17438 (2 views); M18544 (3 views); M15067 (2 views); M8502 (27 views); M18486 (2 views); M17122 (2 views); M18321 (2 views); M820 (529 views); M14950 (2 views); M18513 (4 views); M18551 (3 views); M15059 (2 views); M17830 (4 views); M19191 (5 views); M17448 (1 view); M18584 (5 views); M19232 (5 views); M18306 (2 views); M17439 (2 views); M18228 (2 views); M16567 (2 views); M17061 (2 views); M17931 (9 views); M9120 (24 views); M17372 (2 views); M9119 (20 views); M18507 (3 views); M18246 (3 views); M8456 (16 views); M7395 (22 views); M9063 (24 views); M17041 (2 views); M16331 (2 views); M17032 (2 views); M17087 (2 views); M18500 (3 views); M17077 (3 views); M8398 (24 views); M16496 (2 views); M8498 (23 views); M17386 (2 views); M19450 (3 views); M870 (506 views); M17149 (2 views); M19219 (4 views); M18582 (2 views); M17447 (2 views); M17834 (1 view); M7392 (19 views); M17385 (6 views); M17853 (2 views); M18243 (2 views); M18284 (1 view); M18317 (1 view); M19231 (2 views); M19357 (2 views); M8499 (18 views); M18543 (1 view); M9060 (15 views); M18485 (1 view); M15047 (2 views); M17050 (2 views); M16563 (2 views); M17384 (2 views); M18557 (2 views); M18249 (2 views); M18286 (4 views); M17072 (2 views); M7393 (20 views); M17939 (2 views); M17934 (3 views); M7394 (21 views); M17457 (2 views); M6762 (289 views); M920 (282 views); M6615 (268 views); M6736 (287 views); M905 (302 views); M17917 (3 views); M17076 (2 views); M917 (276 views); M9116 (14 views); M7397 (15 views); M17833 (1 view); M18301 (1 view); M963 (262 views); M18519 (1 view); M17460 (1 view); M16499 (2 views); M9197 (22 views); M6734 (282 views); M978 (267 views); M6753 (275 views); M960 (288 views); M957 (272 views); M930 (254 views); M889 (266 views); M6730 (304 views); M6725 (269 views); M6751 (261 views); M897 (260 views); M6745 (266 views); M975 (277 views); M900 (296 views); M927 (280 views); M6724 (281 views); M982 (265 views); M6732 (276 views); M6733 (286 views); M984 (264 views); M977 (293 views); M974 (252 views); M6746 (273 views); M6613 (282 views); M924 (279 views); M6612 (272 views); M970 (276 views); M6763 (284 views); M904 (274 views); M6747 (279 views); M6757 (291 views); M18440 (3 views); M6625 (304 views); M16484 (2 views); M6740 (293 views); M962 (274 views); M887 (297 views); M6764 (264 views); M919 (264 views); M6623 (267 views); M6737 (278 views); M6626 (304 views); M956 (260 views); M6735 (278 views); M18278 (1 view); M17455 (1 view); M17080 (2 views); M6729 (285 views); M16552 (2 views); M6616 (299 views); M6758 (292 views); M9183 (19 views); M15049 (2 views); M893 (249 views); M19235 (5 views); M980 (255 views); M18232 (3 views); M923 (268 views); M15834 (3 views); M15075 (2 views); M17029 (2 views); M8392 (14 views); M17344 (2 views); M6619 (263 views); M17380 (2 views); M964 (290 views); M8485 (20 views); M17019 (2 views); M6726 (285 views); M18281 (1 view); M966 (313 views); M892 (265 views); M988 (268 views); M18098 (2 views); M6721 (287 views); M17353 (3 views); M6759 (282 views); M18312 (1 view); M17844 (2 views); M6617 (280 views); M987 (274 views); M9157 (29 views); M17811 (3 views); M891 (295 views); M899 (290 views); M18446 (1 view); M9121 (17 views); M8386 (23 views); M6743 (313 views); M952 (283 views); M954 (267 views); M895 (269 views); M6728 (294 views); M18545 (4 views); M908 (272 views); M985 (269 views); M18265 (2 views); M6755 (282 views); M8500 (25 views); M888 (284 views); M959 (290 views); M17068 (2 views); M6738 (293 views); M16492 (2 views); M19222 (2 views); M6744 (286 views); M19225 (2 views); M14952 (2 views); M922 (293 views); M6624 (280 views); M18494 (1 view); M17060 (2 views); M6752 (289 views); M18550 (2 views); M17858 (1 view); M6750 (274 views); M969 (276 views); M17071 (2 views); M951 (279 views); M968 (259 views); M894 (277 views); M967 (299 views); M958 (276 views); M17402 (2 views); M6723 (313 views); M926 (272 views); M903 (283 views); M8365 (18 views); M15074 (2 views); M6618 (293 views); M6749 (280 views); M8453 (16 views); M6727 (283 views); M890 (278 views); M18343 (2 views); M6741 (282 views); M955 (290 views); M896 (262 views); M18298 (1 view); M6742 (263 views); M18307 (1 view); M6754 (271 views); M18236 (2 views); M6756 (270 views); M8388 (19 views); M6621 (282 views); M6722 (275 views); M6761 (289 views); M8396 (25 views); M6622 (283 views); M965 (257 views); M7377 (22 views); M6739 (288 views); M6760 (287 views); M17038 (2 views); M17857 (2 views); M8454 (19 views); M971 (272 views); M17133 (3 views); M6620 (264 views); M17376 (2 views); M8415 (25 views); M17399 (2 views); M7396 (13 views); M18231 (2 views); M19229 (1 view); M17773 (2 views); M17432 (2 views); M17816 (1 view); M18268 (3 views); M9178 (22 views); M15066 (2 views); M18438 (2 views); M15056 (2 views); M9115 (31 views); M9164 (29 views); M7362 (17 views); M8419 (19 views); M16565 (2 views); M17921 (3 views); M14946 (2 views); M17082 (2 views); M17942 (4 views); M18283 (1 view); M16488 (2 views); M18273 (3 views); M17838 (1 view); M17470 (2 views); M19194 (1 view); M17033 (3 views); M9122 (21 views); M8422 (17 views); M15065 (2 views); M19236 (2 views); M17147 (2 views); M19193 (6 views); M17343 (2 views); M17826 (5 views); M9162 (19 views); M17466 (2 views); M17020 (2 views); M17036 (2 views); M17856 (2 views); M17451 (1 view); M9140 (21 views); M18495 (1 view); M14940 (2 views); M17464 (1 view); M19364 (2 views); M18291 (2 views); M17908 (2 views); M18506 (2 views); M18560 (2 views); M15072 (3 views); M17125 (3 views); M18516 (2 views); M18255 (4 views); M18096 (2 views); M18276 (3 views); M7389 (15 views); M377842 (5 views); M8952 (26 views); M20464 (34 views); M20465 (43 views); M20466 (23 views); M6777 (31 views); M20551 (33 views); M8864 (26 views); M7355 (30 views); M20553 (21 views); M8937 (24 views); M8879 (25 views); M7343 (24 views); M8818 (20 views); M7350 (29 views); M6765 (28 views); M7287 (29 views); M6771 (27 views); M7320 (28 views); M7353 (30 views); M6766 (24 views); M6776 (26 views); M7285 (25 views); M7360 (25 views); M6770 (29 views); M7346 (30 views); M7242 (29 views); M7348 (26 views); M7281 (27 views); M7247 (33 views); M7354 (22 views); M7246 (22 views); M7309 (36 views); M7359 (24 views); M6775 (31 views); M7293 (23 views); M7356 (30 views); M7295 (31 views); M7302 (33 views); M6768 (26 views); M7317 (25 views); M7312 (34 views); M7316 (27 views); M7315 (24 views); M7253 (19 views); M7358 (28 views); M8815 (37 views); M8811 (39 views); M8823 (24 views); M8552 (23 views); M8935 (22 views); M8553 (26 views); M8834 (24 views); M8885 (26 views); M8837 (34 views); M8506 (26 views); M8524 (28 views); M8933 (24 views); M8946 (26 views); M8809 (22 views); M8491 (15 views); M8526 (26 views); M8836 (28 views); M8812 (25 views); M7255 (24 views); M8389 (24 views); M8550 (24 views); M8884 (22 views); M6767 (30 views); M7342 (27 views); M7341 (29 views); M8813 (16 views); M6769 (28 views); M8888 (24 views); M7357 (29 views); M8504 (32 views); M8858 (21 views); M8814 (25 views); M8902 (26 views); M7279 (27 views); M8912 (27 views); M8832 (25 views); M7245 (23 views); M8487 (16 views); M7263 (31 views); M6922 (26 views); M7323 (28 views); M7257 (21 views); M8859 (23 views); M7344 (33 views); M8905 (24 views); M8868 (34 views); M8927 (18 views); M7382 (17 views); M6774 (29 views); M8857 (31 views); M7322 (30 views); M8941 (24 views); M8934 (42 views); M7243 (22 views); M8591 (18 views); M7361 (28 views); M8588 (24 views); M7313 (31 views); M7292 (36 views); M8835 (26 views); M8574 (21 views); M7250 (28 views); M8931 (24 views); M9042 (26 views); M8420 (25 views); M7278 (27 views); M8878 (29 views); M8887 (26 views); M8551 (32 views); M8913 (23 views); M8871 (24 views); M8940 (29 views); M7347 (31 views); M8907 (24 views); M8531 (23 views); M8833 (22 views); M8908 (30 views); M8508 (28 views); M8537 (29 views); M8865 (28 views); M8529 (24 views); M7248 (26 views); M7366 (18 views); M8936 (27 views); M8928 (39 views); M8866 (30 views); M8903 (26 views); M8522 (24 views); M8896 (31 views); M7258 (24 views); M8860 (22 views); M7252 (32 views); M9040 (21 views); M8877 (23 views); M8525 (19 views); M8590 (24 views); M8507 (26 views); M8901 (31 views); M8855 (21 views); M7351 (22 views); M7280 (25 views); M9113 (26 views); M9054 (22 views); M9114 (25 views); M9069 (20 views); M6772 (33 views); M8831 (22 views); M8943 (17 views); M8897 (45 views); M20547 (45 views); M9074 (26 views); M17141 (1 view); M17024 (1 view); M9167 (21 views); M17935 (3 views); M18328 (1 view); M18256 (1 view); M18330 (1 view); M8395 (19 views); M17065 (2 views); M14965 (1 view); M18458 (2 views); M18279 (1 view); M17138 (1 view); M9182 (22 views); M17351 (1 view); M18109 (1 view); M18549 (2 views); M18103 (1 view); M17860 (1 view); M16546 (1 view); M18310 (1 view); M18462 (1 view); M18262 (1 view); M9138 (20 views); M18308 (1 view); M17435 (1 view); M14833 (3 views); M9071 (24 views); M18498 (2 views); M18333 (1 view); M16489 (1 view); M17440 (1 view); M17367 (1 view); M18299 (2 views); M18332 (1 view); M18313 (1 view); M18323 (1 view); M18106 (1 view); M17937 (1 view); M9305 (2 views); M20211 (22 views); M20505 (26 views); M23487 (23 views); M9298 (2 views); M23500 (19 views); M23523 (22 views); M9247 (2 views); M9311 (2 views); M20554 (26 views); M9324 (5 views); M9329 (2 views); M8945 (23 views); M9274 (2 views); M20416 (18 views); M20468 (31 views); M8926 (18 views); M9233 (2 views); M9306 (4 views); M8861 (24 views); M20504 (34 views); M9221 (2 views); M19748 (18 views); M20644 (27 views); M20417 (17 views); M9302 (2 views); M377816 (26 views); M9313 (2 views); M9294 (2 views); M23509 (23 views); M9280 (3 views); M9236 (3 views); M20413 (17 views); M20548 (36 views); M20520 (20 views); M23483 (15 views); M20469 (23 views); M23502 (22 views); M20368 (21 views); M9210 (2 views); M20503 (16 views); M9275 (2 views); M23503 (29 views); M9235 (2 views); M20412 (17 views); M23478 (22 views); M9239 (2 views); M20372 (11 views); M9225 (2 views); M9303 (2 views); M23475 (29 views); M20371 (19 views); M9334 (2 views); M20549 (20 views); M20502 (13 views); M9237 (2 views); M20506 (21 views); M20352 (21 views); M12169 (3 views); M23508 (24 views); M20369 (13 views); M20414 (19 views); M23489 (14 views); M9207 (2 views); M23505 (21 views); M20213 (15 views); M8932 (24 views); M23511 (20 views); M9315 (2 views); M23231 (22 views); M9220 (2 views); M23497 (25 views); M23517 (17 views); M8886 (29 views); M20212 (23 views); M9285 (3 views); M8555 (15 views); M8509 (45 views); M8939 (33 views); M23522 (18 views); M9320 (2 views); M9297 (3 views); M23491 (16 views); M23466 (30 views); M9271 (2 views); M9327 (2 views); M9278 (3 views); M9216 (2 views); M14663 (2 views); M23507 (27 views); M9310 (3 views); M23228 (27 views); M20419 (16 views); M9292 (2 views); M23477 (26 views); M9291 (2 views); M23521 (20 views); M20373 (19 views); M9290 (2 views); M9279 (4 views); M9211 (2 views); M20518 (18 views); M9245 (2 views); M23488 (14 views); M23226 (15 views); M9232 (2 views); M9229 (2 views); M9328 (2 views); M9296 (2 views); M9273 (2 views); M9301 (2 views); M20357 (15 views); M9224 (2 views); M9213 (2 views); M8854 (26 views); M8592 (21 views); M20415 (21 views); M9217 (3 views); M9243 (2 views); M9240 (2 views); M20624 (24 views); M9244 (2 views); M8883 (21 views); M9248 (2 views); M9223 (2 views); M23479 (12 views); M9308 (2 views); M9205 (2 views); M9322 (2 views); M9041 (23 views); M20524 (15 views); M9338 (2 views); M8930 (30 views); M9227 (2 views); M23512 (28 views); M9208 (2 views); M23490 (28 views); M9219 (2 views); M20210 (24 views); M9309 (2 views); M9307 (2 views); M20354 (14 views); M9295 (2 views); M23474 (17 views); M20385 (15 views); M19749 (30 views); M23493 (17 views); M8523 (25 views); M20418 (27 views); M20345 (17 views); M20355 (18 views); M9231 (2 views); M9246 (2 views); M23518 (13 views); M9284 (3 views); M23227 (12 views); M23504 (26 views); M20353 (19 views); M20347 (20 views); M9222 (2 views); M8929 (30 views); M20467 (17 views); M9206 (2 views); M8838 (26 views); M9234 (2 views); M8597 (28 views); M10799 (2 views); M20555 (24 views); M20507 (32 views); M9282 (3 views); M9318 (2 views); M9281 (2 views); M20501 (14 views); M20346 (27 views); M23473 (18 views); M20508 (21 views); M9272 (2 views); M23476 (23 views); M9300 (2 views); M11587 (2 views); M9316 (2 views); M23519 (23 views); M23481 (20 views); M8505 (32 views); M23506 (18 views); M23510 (28 views); M9317 (1 view); M23524 (25 views); M9242 (2 views); M23520 (16 views); M9238 (2 views); M9332 (2 views); M9287 (2 views); M9314 (2 views); M23492 (34 views); M8580 (27 views); M9228 (2 views); M23230 (19 views); M9330 (3 views); M377838 (6 views); M377836 (18 views); M377824 (9 views); M377831 (5 views); M377837 (6 views); M377843 (4 views); M377830 (3 views); M9226 (2 views); M9304 (2 views); M20370 (19 views); M9230 (2 views); M9293 (2 views); M19729 (21 views); M8899 (22 views); M9209 (2 views); M9218 (2 views); M9241 (2 views); M9214 (3 views); M377818 (3 views); M377839 (3 views); M377827 (6 views); M377833 (7 views); M377817 (3 views); M377823 (3 views); M377834 (7 views); M377819 (5 views); M377845 (5 views); M377826 (3 views); M377821 (5 views); M377820 (2 views); M377828 (3 views); M377829 (5 views); M377841 (3 views); M377825 (5 views); M377832 (6 views); M377835 (1 view); M377822 (4 views); M377840 (6 views); M377844 (5 views); M6924 (23 views); M7251 (27 views); M7244 (26 views);
    Taxon list17052
    Specimen list258073
    Folio views1620Folio list (1113 views); test (507 views);
    Views for media list10824
    Bibliography10911
    Documents list1429
    Matrix views2413Matrix landing page (1959 views); Morphology matrix (454 views);




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project840
    Media downloads155M928 (1 download); M8590 (1 download); M23510 (2 downloads); M20413 (1 download); M20464 (2 downloads); M7355 (2 downloads); M20465 (1 download); M20466 (1 download); M8929 (1 download); M8494 (2 downloads); M23509 (1 download); M17130 (1 download); M8504 (2 downloads); M8505 (2 downloads); M8506 (1 download); M8507 (1 download); M8508 (1 download); M8509 (2 downloads); M8502 (1 download); M8503 (1 download); M6760 (1 download); M6759 (1 download); M8864 (1 download); M6766 (1 download); M7286 (1 download); M6922 (1 download); M7346 (2 downloads); M8365 (1 download); M8390 (1 download); M8399 (1 download); M8419 (2 downloads); M8420 (1 download); M9280 (2 downloads); M9278 (1 download); M9279 (1 download); M9282 (1 download); M9283 (1 download); M9284 (1 download); M9285 (1 download); M9286 (1 download); M17908 (1 download); M17912 (1 download); M17926 (1 download); M18292 (1 download); M18293 (1 download); M18294 (1 download); M18295 (1 download); M18296 (1 download); M18299 (1 download); M7390 (1 download); M809 (1 download); M884 (1 download); M8498 (1 download); M9198 (1 download); M958 (1 download); M778 (1 download); M8389 (2 downloads); M875 (1 download); M863 (1 download); M859 (1 download); M861 (2 downloads); M796 (2 downloads); M807 (4 downloads); M805 (2 downloads); M776 (1 download); M19726 (3 downloads); M23504 (2 downloads); M20368 (2 downloads); M804 (1 download); M6725 (2 downloads); M8393 (2 downloads); M986 (1 download); M6621 (1 download); M6770 (1 download); M6776 (1 download); M6730 (1 download); M17824 (1 download); M803 (1 download); M6625 (1 download); M17910 (1 download); M17919 (1 download); M17805 (1 download); M17826 (3 downloads); M17831 (2 downloads); M6624 (1 download); M6755 (1 download); M6626 (2 downloads); M23500 (1 download); M19311 (1 download); M811 (1 download); M874 (2 downloads); M880 (1 download); M847 (1 download); M18230 (1 download); M17809 (1 download); M17810 (1 download); M17814 (1 download); M17808 (1 download); M876 (1 download); M878 (1 download); M20547 (1 download); M890 (1 download); M20412 (1 download); M6763 (1 download); M794 (1 download); M868 (1 download); M976 (1 download); M6723 (1 download); M6762 (1 download); M17773 (1 download); M17772 (1 download); M17771 (1 download); M17770 (1 download); M14707 (1 download); M8886 (1 download); M8479 (1 download); M7320 (1 download); M7247 (1 download); M23475 (1 download); M19749 (1 download); M19448 (1 download); M6620 (1 download); M6758 (1 download); M17909 (1 download); M17918 (1 download); M18288 (1 download); M18289 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads117Morphology matrix (117 downloads);
    Project downloads553
    Document downloads15All data - TNT formatted (4 downloads); twenty shortest trees of 57269 steps (4 downloads); twenty shortest trees of 57269 steps saved in MacClade (4 downloads); changes in dental matrix (1 download); Final SOG Nexus file with Genbank Numbers (8/25/09) (2 downloads);