Project 48: M. Spaulding, M. A. O'Leary, J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution. PLOS ONE. 9 (4):1-14.
Specimen: Hippopotamus amphibius (AMNH/Mammalogy:24282)
View: distal skull

Abstract

**Curated images associated with MorphoBank Project 321 and collected as part of the Spaulding et al. paper, with many images associated to characters and cells. NOTE - matrix may not match that of project 321 exactly, but is a near final version. See Project 321 for final total evidence matrix***

Abstract
Background: Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, (Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the (raoellid artiodactylan (Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to (Indohyus, with (Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of (Mesonychia and (Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, (Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces (Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result.

Conclusions/Significance: Integration of new fossil material of (Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade (Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of (Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several
cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.



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Article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007062

Project DOI: 10.7934/P48, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P48
This project containsMatrices
  • 1529 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 4 Documents
  • 1 Folio
  • 148 Taxa
  • 653 Specimens
  • 690 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 38135
Total media associated with cells: 7141
Total labels associated with cell media: 2160
Characters
Total characters: 690
Total characters with associated media: 1
Total characters with media with labels: 1
Total character states: 1515
Total character states with associated media: 23
Total character states with media with labels:23
Total unordered/ordered characters:690/0
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MorphoBank Project 48

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of California Riverside

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Stony Brook University



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Maureen O'Leary
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/14/15
    12354364262690550121832283
    (27379, 375, 4529)
    168164211621
    MorphoBank Curator
    Last logged in 02/16/20
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Seth Kaufman
    Last logged in 05/13/15
    5000000016
    (5, 0, 11)
    0031
    Maeva Orliac
    Full membership
    Last logged in 09/30/11
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Maria Passarotti
    Last logged in 02/16/20
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000
    Michelle Spaulding
    Character annotater
    Last logged in 09/26/14
    1089100445260
    (4618, 347, 295)
    5110


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M188' (80 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 01/29/14
    93492510106143224
    [2] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    45604480434423573
    [3] Ovis aries
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    56591480455051633
    [4] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    6157869051297753
    [5] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    7057185049200183
    [6] Giraffa camelopardalis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    47600490462231023
    [7] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    9255334045173163
    [8] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    86548500592421283
    [9] Tragulus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    7656851048143143
    [10] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    68372470250130514
    [11] Monodon monoceros
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    187341290163315344
    [12] Inia geoffrensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1843404601672474
    [13] Pontoporia blainvillei
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1293114002514923
    [14] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1773355201784974
    [15] Ziphius cavirostris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1683585601666254
    [16] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1743358601823464
    [17] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    48582580631901113
    [18] Choeropsis liberiensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    6156386266146143
    [19] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    5257992260195923
    [20] Babyrousa babyrussa
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    8753271072127103
    [21] Potamochoerus porcus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    84529430795461123
    [22] Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9652263076138123
    [23] Tayassu tajacu
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    74543771732421023
    [24] Camelus dromedarius
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    5457382064118143
    [25] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    1345073634625883
    [26] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    178437381749574
    [27] Tapirus terrestris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    815396607112094
    [28] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    3759566058177254
    [29] Ailurus fulgens
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    89558555145004
    [30] Canis latrans
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    81576567033514
    [31] Nandinia binotata
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    96546542150004
    [32] Felis silvestris
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    56502445113160214
    [33] Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 05/14/15
    92565564132004
    [34] † Hyopsodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19944334049004
    [35] † Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26837619047004
    [36] † Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2572892971375214
    [37] † Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5498789451804
    [38] † Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    163421422104114
    [39] † Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    270367301521444
    [40] † Pachyaena ossifraga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    432248217823104
    [41] † Sinonyx jiashanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    177422523898864
    [42] † Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2053994328482124
    [43] † Dissacus praenuntius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    307285265937584
    [44] † Dissacus zanabazari
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    268383265372424
    [45] † Harpagolestes orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    406216145638284
    [46] † Harpagolestes uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3382741314641554
    [47] † Hapalodectes hetangensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    353289191137004
    [48] † Helohyus plicodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4462081653492103
    [49] † Ambulocetus natans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    440126113490003
    [50] † Gobiohyus orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    380274235315083
    [51] † Leptomeryx
    Last Modified in 01/22/14
    142511311381663
    [52] † Poebrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    109526352534763
    [53] † Agriochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1225172245156123
    [54] † Merycoidodon sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    117527263454793
    [55] † Diacodexis pakistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18941526581003
    [56] † Diacodexis sp.
    Last Modified in 05/13/15
    395258171383623
    [57] † Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2204241754415113
    [58] † Archaeotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1245201824648113
    [59] † Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    216443193311483
    [60] † Microbunodon minimum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    312308543141003
    [61] † Merycopotamus dissimilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    338287214125643
    [62] † Xenohyus venitor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55111611211003
    [63] † Anthracokeryx ulnifer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    36428775344093
    [64] † Libycosaurus petrocchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55411451111003
    [65] † Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2983841806414114
    [66] † Siamotherium krabiense
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    567100220333304
    [67] † Cainotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12851323049003
    [68] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    232417211432204
    [69] † Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    500147173212004
    [70] † Brachyhyops wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    46817627395193
    [71] † Achaenodon uintensis
    Last Modified in 05/13/15
    3363023143812983
    [72] † Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    476148518483834
    [73] † Eoconodon heilprinianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42626013422212144
    [74] † Protoceras celer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2774053361869123
    [75] † Indohyus indirae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    453203103241149123
    [76] † Vulpavus profectus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    163463461597004
    [77] † Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1784384385816004
    [78] † Hyaenodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    128500499576004
    [79] † Patriofelis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    994444448562004
    [80] † Proviverra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    964714708340004


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M7251 (11 views); M7244 (11 views);
    Taxon list11610
    Specimen list159216
    Folio views1054Folio list (744 views); test (310 views);
    Views for media list7007
    Bibliography6720
    Documents list980
    Matrix views1671Matrix landing page (1378 views); Morphology matrix (293 views);




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project690
    Media downloads122M928 (1 download); M8590 (1 download); M23510 (2 downloads); M20413 (1 download); M20464 (2 downloads); M7355 (2 downloads); M20465 (1 download); M20466 (1 download); M8929 (1 download); M8494 (1 download); M23509 (1 download); M17130 (1 download); M8504 (2 downloads); M8505 (2 downloads); M8506 (1 download); M8507 (1 download); M8508 (1 download); M8509 (2 downloads); M8502 (1 download); M8503 (1 download); M6760 (1 download); M6759 (1 download); M8864 (1 download); M6766 (1 download); M7286 (1 download); M6922 (1 download); M7346 (2 downloads); M8365 (1 download); M8390 (1 download); M8399 (1 download); M8419 (2 downloads); M8420 (1 download); M9280 (2 downloads); M9278 (1 download); M9279 (1 download); M9282 (1 download); M9283 (1 download); M9284 (1 download); M9285 (1 download); M9286 (1 download); M17908 (1 download); M17912 (1 download); M17926 (1 download); M18292 (1 download); M18293 (1 download); M18294 (1 download); M18295 (1 download); M18296 (1 download); M18299 (1 download); M7390 (1 download); M809 (1 download); M884 (1 download); M8498 (1 download); M9198 (1 download); M958 (1 download); M778 (1 download); M8389 (2 downloads); M875 (1 download); M863 (1 download); M859 (1 download); M861 (2 downloads); M796 (2 downloads); M807 (4 downloads); M805 (2 downloads); M776 (1 download); M19726 (3 downloads); M23504 (2 downloads); M20368 (2 downloads); M804 (1 download); M6725 (2 downloads); M8393 (1 download); M986 (1 download); M6621 (1 download); M6770 (1 download); M6776 (1 download); M6730 (1 download); M17824 (1 download); M803 (1 download); M6625 (1 download); M17910 (1 download); M17919 (1 download); M17805 (1 download); M17826 (3 downloads); M17831 (1 download); M6624 (1 download); M6755 (1 download); M6626 (1 download); M23500 (1 download); M19311 (1 download); M811 (1 download); M874 (2 downloads); M880 (1 download); M847 (1 download); M18230 (1 download); M17809 (1 download); M17810 (1 download); M17814 (1 download); M17808 (1 download);
    Matrix downloads103Morphology matrix (103 downloads);
    Project downloads450
    Document downloads15All data - TNT formatted (4 downloads); twenty shortest trees of 57269 steps (4 downloads); twenty shortest trees of 57269 steps saved in MacClade (4 downloads); changes in dental matrix (1 download); Final SOG Nexus file with Genbank Numbers (8/25/09) (2 downloads);