Project 5193: J. N. Gelfo, G. M. López, M. Bond. 2024. New insights on the anatomy, paleobiology, and biostratigraphy of Xenungulata (Mammalia) from the Paleogene of South America. Palaeontologia Electronica. 27 (2):1-26. (In Press)
Specimen: † Carodnia vieirai (American Museum of Natural History/AMNH:49848)
View: level AMNH 49848


Xenungulata is a group of early Paleogene mammals endemic to South America
that remains poorly understood. The first species described within this order, Carodnia
feruglioi, has laid the basis for the homonymous zone, currently positioned between
the Peligran (Danian) and Itaboraian (Ypresian) South American Land Mammals Ages.
Through the study of new specimens and a revaluation of materials from historical collections,
we have identified remains belonging to Carodniidae and Etayoidae xenungulates
and assigned them to Carodnia feruglioi and Notoetayoa gargantuai. This has led
to a reinterpretation of their dental characteristics, setting the foundations for establishing
dental homologies with other native ungulates of South America. Additionally, we
introduce Carodnia karuen sp. nov., discovered at the lower Paleocene levels in Cerro
Redondo locality in Patagonia, Argentina. The specimen extends the biostratigraphic
and biochronological significance of Carodnia as a fossil guide in the Paleocene of
southern South America. A paleobiological analysis of these specimens focused on
comparing the variation in mandibular morphology and measurements within Carodniidae.
This approach has allowed the identification of a potential sexual dimorphism pattern
at the generic level for Carodnia. The findings imply that Carodnia feruglioi from
the early Paleocene of Patagonia and the early Eocene Carodnia vieirai from Itaboraí,
Brazil, probably maintained a sexual variation in mandibular width and height.

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Article DOI: 10.26879/1360

Project DOI: 10.7934/P5193,
This project contains
  • 7 Media
  • 2 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
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MorphoBank Project 5193
  • Creation Date:
    10 April 2024
  • Publication Date:
    06 June 2024
  • Project views: 731

    Authors' Institutions

    • Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

    • Universidad Nacional de la Plata (UNLP)


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    Javier Gelfo
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