Project 632: A. A. Klymiuk, R. A. Stockey. 2012. A Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) seed cone provides the earliest fossil record for Picea (Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany. 99 (6):1069-1082.
Specimen: Picea burtonii sp. nov. (unvouchered)

Abstract

• Premise of study: Sequence analyses for Pinaceae have suggested that extant genera diverged in the late Mesozoic. While the fossil record indicates that Pinaceae was highly diverse during the Cretaceous, there are few records of living genera. This description of an anatomically preserved seed cone extends the fossil record for Picea A. Dietrich (Pinaceae) by ∼75 Ma.

• Methods: The specimen was collected from the Apple Bay locality of Vancouver Island (Lower Cretaceous, Valanginian) and is described from anatomical sections prepared using cellulose acetate peels. Cladistic analyses of fossil and extant pinaceous seed cones employed parsimony ratchet searches of an anatomical and morphological matrix.

• Key results: This new seed cone has a combination of characters shared only with the genus Picea A. Dietr. and is thus described as Picea burtonii Klymiuk et Stockey sp. nov. Bisaccate pollen attributable to Picea is found in the micropyles of several ovules, corroborating the designation of this cone as an early spruce. Cladistic analyses place P. burtonii with extant Picea and an Oligocene representative of the genus. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that Picea is sister to Cathaya Chun et Kuang, and P. burtonii helps to establish a minimum date for this node in hypotheses of conifer phylogeny.

• Conclusions: As an early member of the extant genus Picea, this seed cone extends the fossil record of Picea to the Valanginian Stage of the Early Cretaceous, ca. 136 Ma, thereby resolving a ghost lineage predicted by molecular divergence analyses, and offers new insight into the evolution of Pinaceae.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P632, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P632
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 110 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 85 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

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Total scored cells: 3847
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 88
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 210
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:88/0
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MorphoBank Project 632

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    member name taxa specimens media media
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    Ashley Klymiuk
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/11/12
    11001188055003847
    (3780, 0, 67)
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    MorphoBank Curator
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    0100000000
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    Ruth Stockey
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1448' (42 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] New taxon 1
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    340000003
    [2] Sciadopit
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [3] Ced deo
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2323200003
    [4] Psdlar am
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3313100003
    [5] Larix dec
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [6] Cathaya argyrophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4303000003
    [7] Abiesfirm
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5292900003
    [8] Ketel
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [9] Pn thunbe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2323200003
    [10] Pstsuga m
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [11] Tsuga mer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [12] Apple
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [13] Pn arnold
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [14] Pc sitch
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [15] Pc abies
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    1333300003
    [16] Pc asper
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [17] Pc crass
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [18] Pc korai
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [19] Pc koya
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [20] Pc meyeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [21] Pc obova
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [22] Pc gleh
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [23] Pc jezoe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [24] Pc engel
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [25] Pc glau
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [26] Pc alcoq
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [27] Pc brach
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [28] Pc maxim
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [29] Pc purp
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [30] Pc orient
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [31] Pc schre
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    10242400003
    [32] Pc smith
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10242400003
    [33] Pc brew
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [34] Pc chihua
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [35] Pc wils
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [36] Pc lik
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2323200003
    [37] Pc mex
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [38] Pc torano
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [39] Pc punge
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [40] Pc maria
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    1333300003
    [41] Pc omo
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003
    [42] Pc ruben
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1333300003


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1574' (52 Taxa)

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    [1] Sciadopitys verticillata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0515103003
    [2] Pc abies
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0595202003
    [3] Cathaya argyrophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8454501003
    [4] cedrus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0555202003
    [5] Cryptomeria japonica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43939011003
    [6] keteleeria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2545101003
    [7] larix
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0615301003
    [8] Obirastrobus kokubunii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2525101003
    [9] Obirastrobus nihongii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3515001003
    [10] Pararaucaria patagonica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    53736013003
    [11] picea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0615301003
    [12] Pinus belgica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3515100003
    [13] Pinus nelsonii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1535300003
    [14] Pinus ponderosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4505000003
    [15] Pityostrobus andraei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7464601003
    [16] Pityostrobus argonnensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5474702003
    [17] Pityostrobus beardii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7474700003
    [18] Pityostrobus bernissartensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2505002003
    [19] Pityostrobus californiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3505001003
    [20] Pityostrobus cliffwoodensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9454500003
    [21] Pityostrobus corneti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4484802003
    [22] Pityostrobus hallii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5484801003
    [23] Pityostrobus hautrageanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7464601003
    [24] Pityostrobus hokodzensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4494901003
    [25] Pityostrobus hueberi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1515102003
    [26] Pityostrobus jacksonii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10444400003
    [27] Pityostrobus kayeii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4494901003
    [28] Pityostrobus leckenbyi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5484801003
    [29] Pityostrobus lynnii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7484700003
    [30] Pityostrobus macrocephalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11424201003
    [31] Pityostrobus makahensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3515001003
    [32] Pityostrobus matsubarae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3505001003
    [33] Pityostrobus mcmurrayensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9444401003
    [34] Pityostrobus milleri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8454501003
    [35] Pityostrobus oblongus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4494901003
    [36] Pityostrobus palmeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3525100003
    [37] Pityostrobus pubescens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5484801003
    [38] Pityostrobus ramentosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7464601003
    [39] Pityostrobus shastaensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12424200003
    [40] Pityostrobus villerotensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3505001003
    [41] Pityostrobus virginiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4494901003
    [42] Pseudoaraucaria arnoldii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2535200003
    [43] Pseudoaraucaria benstedi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18363600003
    [44] Pseudoaraucaria gibbosa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2525200003
    [45] Pseudoaraucaria heeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2525200003
    [46] Pseudoaraucaria loppineti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5494900003
    [47] Pseudoaraucaria major
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4505000003
    [48] Pseudolarix amabilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2515101003
    [49] pseudotsuga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0565301003
    [50] tsuga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0595301003
    [51] Picea diettertiana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1525201003
    [52] Picea burtonii sp. nov.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1525201003


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