Project 667: F. L. Agnolin, N. R. Chimento. 2021. Afrotherian affinities for endemic South American “ungulates”. Mammalian Biology. 76 (2):101-108.
Specimen: † Interatherium robustum (unvouchered)
View: lateral

Abstract

Cranial endocasts are one of the most direct tools available to obtain information about the endocranial cavity of fossil mammals, but few anatomical comparisons have analyzed endocranial data within a phylogenetic framework. Our study combines analyses of new digital endocasts from high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) for two notoungulates, Cochilius sp. and Notostylops murinus, with data from published anatomical descriptions and endocasts (prior µCT digital endocasts and natural and extracted plaster endocasts), resulting in 22 endocranial characters (11 new) scored on 20 notoungulates and five outgroups. These data permitted a comparative study of cranial endocasts of notoungulates, an enigmatic group of extinct South American mammals, shedding light on several important issues concerning their phylogenetic relationships. The new endocranial data were integrated into a craniodental and postcranial matrix, resulting in 259 characters across 65 taxa, the most comprehensive character and taxon sampling to date and the only one including a substantial suite of endocranial characters. We further performed ancestral state reconstructions for endocranial characters using parsimony optimization on the resulting phylogenetic trees. Body mass estimates and endocranial volumes were used to calculate Encephalization Quotients (EQs) and Phylogenetic Encephalization Quotients (PEQs), which then were optimized onto the phylogenies. Endocast data from ancestral character state reconstructions bear on relationships among meridiungulates, revealing that many endocast characters may be synapomorphies for Notoungulata and other clades within the group. Notoungulates, in general, display relatively low EQs when compared with Holarctic herbivorous mammals, potentially due to their long history of evolution in isolation in South America during the Cenozoic.


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Article DOI: 10.1016/j.mambio.2010.12.001

Project DOI: 10.7934/P667, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P667
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 65 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 259 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 51.02k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 16846
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 259
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 568
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:259/0
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MorphoBank Project 667

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

    • Museo de La Plata

    • Universidad Maimonides



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Fernando Perini
    Project Administrator
    64112120013885
    (8762, 4611, 512)
    000
    John Flynn
    Full membership
    1000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Thomas Macrini
    Full membership
    00047002961
    (481, 2470, 10)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1514' (65 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Phenacodus primaevus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01861862746003
    [2] † Hyopsodus lepidus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    02042041144003
    [3] † Protolipterna ellipsodontoides
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0717116127003
    [4] † Tetramerorhinus lucarius
    Last Modified in 03/07/20
    01681684348003
    [5] † Trigonostylops wortmani
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    012712710725003
    [6] † Astrapotherium magnum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01621615939003
    [7] † Carodnia vieirai
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0989813427003
    [8] † Pyrotherium romeroi
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01241249738003
    [9] † Simpsonotus praecursor
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01471471102003
    [10] † Notostylops murinus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0208208438003
    [11] † Anisotemnus distentus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    094941632003
    [12] † Thomashuxleya externa
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0160159982003
    [13] † Oldfieldthomasia debilitata
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0161161962003
    [14] † Colbertia magellanica
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0160159991003
    [15] † Acropithecus rigidus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    099991582003
    [16] † Eopachyrucos pliciferus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    042422152003
    [17] † Santiagorothia chiliensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    11421421133003
    [18] † Proargyrohyrax curanderensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    060601981003
    [19] † Progaleopithecus tournoueri
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01241241323003
    [20] † Federicoanaya sallaensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0167166903003
    [21] † Archaeophylus patrius
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    054542041003
    [22] † Plagiarthrus clivus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01231231333003
    [23] † Cochilius volvens
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0183183751003
    [24] † Interatherium robustum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0183183733003
    [25] † Punapithecus minor
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    065651922003
    [26] † Miocochilius anomopodus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0187187693003
    [27] † Protypotherium australe
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0202201553003
    [28] † Johnbel hatcheri
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    081811762003
    [29] † Ignigena minisculus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    069691882003
    [30] † Transpithecus obtentus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    074741832003
    [31] † Guilielmoscottia plicifera
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    068681892003
    [32] † Antepithecus brachystephanus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01081081492003
    [33] † Epipatriarchus bifidens
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    082821761003
    [34] † Altitypotherium chucalensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    011511513113003
    [35] † Pseudotypotherium pseudopachygnathum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01851856113003
    [36] † Typotheriopsis internum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01871875913003
    [37] † Archaeohyrax suniensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0163162952003
    [38] † Archaeotypotherium tinguiriricaense
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01131131442003
    [39] † Mesotherium cristatum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01861866013003
    [40] † Trachytherus alloxus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0208207484003
    [41] † Plesiotypotherium casirense
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01681687714003
    [42] † Hegetotherium mirabile
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0196195622003
    [43] † Pachyrukhos moyani
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01961964716003
    [44] † Paedotherium bonaerense
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01651657816003
    [45] † Campanorco inauguralis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01191191382003
    [46] † Pleurostylodon modicus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01501491082003
    [47] † Rhyphodon lankesteri
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01361361203003
    [48] † Homalodotherium cunninghami
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0213213442003
    [49] † Anayatherium fortis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    054542041003
    [50] † Ancylocoelus frequens
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01301301254003
    [51] † Colpodon propinquus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01491491073003
    [52] † Elmerriggsia fieldia
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01051041541003
    [53] † Coquenia bondi
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    11441441122003
    [54] † Huilatherium pluriplicatum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    013613610815003
    [55] † Leontinia gaudryi
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0186186694003
    [56] † Martinmiguelia fernandezi
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    077771811003
    [57] † Scarittia canquelensis
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0177177802003
    [58] † Taubatherium paulacoutoi
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01031031542003
    [59] † Eurygenium pacegnum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01521521061003
    [60] † Rhynchippus equinus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0216216421003
    [61] † Argyrohippus fraterculus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01481481101003
    [62] † Adinotherium ovinum
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0223222352003
    [63] † Nesodon imbricatus
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    0228226294003
    [64] † Proadinotherium muensteri
    Last Modified in 02/25/20
    01411411171003
    [65] † Toxodon platensis
    Last Modified in 04/19/20
    0191191608003


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    Total project views1098
    Project overview77
    Matrix views56Matrix landing page (55 views); Notoungulata Endocranial Matrix (1 view);
    Media views180Media search (155 views); M148107 (25 views);
    Bibliography245
    Views for media list52
    Specimen list82
    Taxon list406




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project22
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    Matrix downloads2Notoungulata Endocranial Matrix (2 downloads);