Project 735: A. López-Arbarello. 2012. Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Ginglymodian Fishes (Actinopterygii: Neopterygii). PLOS ONE. 7 (7):e39370.
Specimen: † Lepidotes gigas (BSPG:1940-I-8)

Abstract

The Ginglymodi is one of the most common, though poorly understood groups of neopterygians, which includes gars, macrosemiiforms and "semionotiforms". In particular, the phylogenetic relationships between the widely distributed "semionotiforms", and between them and other ginglymodians have been enigmatic. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between eight of the 11 "semionotiform" genera, five genera of living and fossil gars and three macrosemiid genera are analyzed through cladistic analysis, based on 90 morphological characters and 37 taxa, including 7 out group taxa.
The results of the analysis show that the Ginglymodi includes two main lineages: Lepisosteiformes and †Semionotiformes. The genera †Pliodetes, †Araripelepidotes, †Lepidotes, †Scheenstia, and †Isanichthys are lepisosteiforms, and not semionotiforms, as previously thought, and these taxa extend the stratigraphic range of the lineage leading to gars back up to the Early Jurassic. A monophyletic †Lepidotes is restricted to the Early
Jurassic species, whereas the strongly tritoral species previously referred to †Lepidotes are referred to †Scheenstia. Other species previously referred to †Lepidotes represent other genera or new taxa. The macrosemiids are well nested within semionotiforms, together with †Semionotidae, here restricted to †Semionotus, and a new family including †Callipurbeckia n. gen. minor (previously referred to †Lepidotes), †Macrosemimimus,
†Tlayuamichin, †Paralepidotus, and †Semiolepis. Due to the numerous taxonomic changes needed according to the phylogenetic analysis, this article also includes formal taxonomic definitions and diagnoses for all generic and higher taxa, which are new or modified. The study of Mesozoic ginglymodians led to confirm Patterson‟s observation that these fishes show morphological affinities with both halecomorphs and teleosts.
Therefore, the compilation of large data sets including the Mesozoic ginglymodians and the re-evaluation of several hypotheses of homology are essential to test the hypotheses of the Halecostomi vs. the Holostei, which is one of the major topics in the evolution of Mesozoic vertebrates and the origin of modern fish faunas.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P735, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P735
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 37 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 90 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 4 MB

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Total scored cells: 2778
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 90
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 204
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:90/0
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MorphoBank Project 735

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    Adriana López-Arbarello
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/11/12
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    (2778, 0, 0)
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    MorphoBank Curator
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1709' (37 Taxa)

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    [1] † Perleidus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14767600002
    [2] † Watsonulus eugnathoides
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11797900002
    [3] Amia calva
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16747400002
    [4] † Leptolepis coryphaenoides
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16747400002
    [5] † Pholidophorus bechei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11797900002
    [6] † Siemensichthys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    29616100002
    [7] † Dapedium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12787800002
    [8] Lepisosteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3878700002
    [9] Atractosteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3898700002
    [10] † Masillosteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14777600002
    [11] † Obaichthys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9818100002
    [12] † Dentilepisosteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3878700002
    [13] † Pliodetes nigeriensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19717100002
    [14] † Araripelepidotes temnurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17737300002
    [15] † Isanichthys palustris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    31595900002
    [16] † Scheenstia maximus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21696900002
    [17] † Scheenstia laevis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30606000002
    [18] † Scheenstia mantelli
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11797900002
    [19] † Scheenstia zappi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18727200002
    [20] † Lepidotes semiserratus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16747400002
    [21] † Lepidotes gigas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9818100002
    [22] † Neosemionotus puntanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18727200002
    [23] Callipurbeckia minor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7838300002
    [24] † Tlayuamichin itztli
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11797900002
    [25] † Macrosemimimus fegerti
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11797900002
    [26] † Macrosemimimus lennieri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8828200002
    [27] † Semionotus bergeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21696900002
    [28] † Semionotus elegans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6848400002
    [29] † Semionotus capensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18727200002
    [30] † Paralepidotus ornatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22686800002
    [31] † Semiolepis brembanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15757500002
    [32] † Macrosemius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13777700002
    [33] † Notagogus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22696800002
    [34] † Propterus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15757500002
    [35] † Sangiorgioichthys sui
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9848100002
    [36] † Sangiorgioichthys aldae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22686800002
    [37] † Luoxiongichthys hyperdorsalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28626200002


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