Project 776: F. G. Marx. 2013. The evolutionary relationships and disparity of baleen whales (Mysticeti). PhD Thesis, University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand). NA:1-190.
Specimen: † Balaenoptera siberi (SMNK:no number, holotype)
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Abstract

The data contained within this project form part of a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Otago, New Zealand, in 2012

An updated version of this matrix is contained in MorphoBank project 687, and was published as part of the following study:

Marx FG, and Fordyce RE. 2015. Baleen boom and bust: a synthesis of mysticete phylogeny, diversity and disparity. Royal Society Open Science 2:140434.


Thesis abstract:

Baleen whales (mysticetes) form an essential part of modern ocean ecosystems, and show some of the most extreme adaptations evolved by any mammal. The evolutionary history of these animals has attracted much attention in recent years, but many disagreements and question marks remain. This study takes a fresh look at the phylogenetic relationships and diversity of mysticetes, with a special emphasis on the relationships of the enigmatic living pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, and the evolution of morphological diversity (disparity) over the past 34 Ma. Detailed morphological comparisons making use of extensive collections housed at New Zealand institutions reveal the pygmy right whale to be the last survivor of the once diverse, and formerly thought extinct, family Cetotheriidae. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 69 mysticetes species and 232 characters supports this result. The same analysis furthermore confirms the monophyly of the major extinct and extant mysticete families (Aetiocetidae, Balaenidae, Balaenopteridae, Cetotheriidae, Eschrichtiidae, Mammalodontidae), in addition to an expanded Eomysticetidae and a clade of toothed mysticetes comprising aetiocetids, mammalodontids, and an undescribed specimen from the early Oligocene of New Zealand. Unlike for most previous analyses, the present data matrix was assembled using the online morphology database MorphoBank, where every scoring was illustrated with around 3,800 annotated, high-quality photographs.

Mysticete disparity is found to have increased quickly during the early history of the clade. Following a distinct peak during the Late Oligocene, disparity rapidly declines towards the Middle Miocene, before eventually starting to recover again during the Late Miocene and Pliocene. Disparity and taxonomic diversity are entirely decoupled. The disparity spike coincides with the co-occurrence of several small, relatively short-lived and very disparate taxa, hinting at the existence of an adaptive radiation leading to several distinct morphotypes early in mysticete evolutionary history. Using the phylogeny to reconstruct missing character scores in the data matrix has virtually no effect on the results, despite the matrix being less than 60% complete. By contrast, the inclusion of reconstructed hypothetical ancestors (internal branches) notably changes the morphospace distribution of the observed taxa. In a plot of the first two axis of a Principal Coordinate Analysis, roughly half of the ancestral taxa fall outside the range defined by the observed taxa, indicating that reconstructed values at internal nodes can combine to reveal novel information about unsampled ancestral morphologies.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P776, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P776
This project containsMatrices
  • 3397 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 69 Taxa
  • 173 Specimens
  • 232 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2048 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 16047
Total media associated with cells: 9780
Total labels associated with cell media: 10376
Characters
Total characters: 232
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 535
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:232/0
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MorphoBank Project 776


    Members

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    Felix Marx
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/01/18
    691733397742322070016047
    (9491, 5728, 828)
    00103760
    Ewan Fordyce
    Full membership
    Last logged in 04/15/18
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    0000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1769' (69 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Zygorhiza kochii
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    020501982542802
    [2] Physeter catodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0190311312052152
    [3] † Aetiocetus cotylalveus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    014308811741932
    [4] † Aetiocetus polydentatus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0154147711771932
    [5] † Aetiocetus weltoni
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    016506521982142
    [6] † Aglaocetus moreni
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0123097121381422
    [7] † Aglaocetus patulus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0164061121891992
    [8] † Archaebalaenoptera castriarquati
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0930125141081142
    [9] † Balaena montalionis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    06301501977792
    [10] Balaena mysticetus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    020304252102182
    [11] † Balaena ricei
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0870126191061132
    [12] † Balaenella brachyrhynus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0119090231561602
    [13] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021401182192382
    [14] Balaenoptera bonaerensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021105162372532
    [15] Balaenoptera borealis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021202182112322
    [16] Balaenoptera musculus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021202182332502
    [17] Balaenoptera omurai
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0207201718002
    [18] Balaenoptera physalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021400182282492
    [19] † Balaenoptera ryani
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    076701554002
    [20] † Balaenoptera siberi
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0139077171621692
    [21] † Balaenula astensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0126084221591612
    [22] Caperea marginata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    020106272802982
    [23] † Cephalotropis coronatus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01241239612002
    [24] † Cetotherium megalophysum
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    010810310917002
    [25] † Cetotherium rathkii
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0125091161411472
    [26] † ChM PV4745
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01231231054002
    [27] † Chonecetus goedertorum
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    016506431942062
    [28] † Chonecetus sookensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0620168269762
    [29] † Diorocetus chichibuensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0141078131631692
    [30] † Diorocetus hiatus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0186033132222352
    [31] † Diunatans luctoretemergo
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0108012351271372
    [32] † Eomysticetus whitmorei
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0153065141821902
    [33] † Eschrichtioides gastaldii
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0131086151481542
    [34] Eschrichtius robustus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021801172632812
    [35] † Eubalaena belgica
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0610163873762
    [36] Eubalaena spp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021001243393532
    [37] † Gricetoides aurorae
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0680160482892
    [38] † Herpetocetus bramblei
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0840135131001122
    [39] † Herpetocetus transatlanticus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0100012841351442
    [40] † Isanacetus laticephalus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0170048161912052
    [41] † Janjucetus hunderi
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    015707051671802
    [42] † Joumocetus shimizui
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01120106141271332
    [43] † Llanocetus denticrenatus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    014208821611652
    [44] † Mammalodon colliveri
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    015207461741922
    [45] † Mauicetus parki
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01631595814002
    [46] † Megaptera hubachi
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0151066151801892
    [47] † Megaptera miocaena
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0130081211611752
    [48] Megaptera novaeangliae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    021501162562712
    [49] † Metopocetus durinasus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0670161478882
    [50] † Micromysticetus rothauseni
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0650164372812
    [51] † Morenocetus parvus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    091013831101172
    [52] † Nannocetus eremus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    082014821001112
    [53] † OU 22026
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0380194046432
    [54] † OU 22044
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0133184151471542
    [55] † OU 22224
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    091891392002
    [56] † OU GS10897
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    054531772002
    [57] † Parabalaenoptera baulinensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0144073151631692
    [58] † Parietobalaena palmeri
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0185039142262392
    [59] † Parietobalaena sp.
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0128091131511622
    [60] † Parietobalaena yamaokai
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0157063131881952
    [61] † Pelocetus calvertensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0188029152132172
    [62] † Peripolocetus vexillifer
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    051501774002
    [63] † Piscobalaena nana
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0203014162472592
    [64] † Plesiobalaenoptera quarantellii
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01120102181191292
    [65] † Tiphyocetus temblorensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0620170068722
    [66] † Titanocetus sammarinensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01150106111241302
    [67] † Uranocetus gramensis
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0154062161651692
    [68] † Yamatocetus canaliculatus
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    0164056121871922
    [69] † ZMT 67
    Last Modified in 06/01/18
    01271279114002


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