Project 784: A. Zieritz, A. F. Sartori, A. E. Bogan, D. C. Aldridge. 2014. Reconstructing the evolution of umbonal sculptures in the Unionida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.
Specimen: Villosa iris (UMZC/USA (NA):shell [sculpture: d])
View: shell

Abstract

‘Umbonal sculptures’ of freshwater mussels (Unionida), which ornament the early ontogenetic shell, have long been used for species identification. Specificity of these sculptures to higher taxonomic levels and their value for phylogenetic reconstruction are still under considerable scientific debate. In particular, the distribution of beak sculpture morphotypes across the unionoid phylogeny and, consequently, evolution of this character remain poorly understood. Based on an examination of 187 taxa, covering five of the six extant unionoid families, this study presents a new model of charac- ter evolution of umbonal sculptures in the order. Ten morphotypes were recognized and conceptualized into the cladistic characters sculpture presence and category. Optimization of sculpture presence on two recent hypotheses of palaeoheterodont phylogenetic relationships using the program Mesquite indicates a sculptured common ancestor of the extant Unionida, with multiple losses of the umbonal ornament occurring subsequently within the clade. Reconstruction of changes in sculpture category is ambiguous and demonstrates the need for further research into the evolutionary relationships of freshwater mussels in general and of their early ontogenetic sculptures in particular. Ambiguity is reduced in analyses applying a model with unequal costs of transformation between character states, which was derived from observations on intermediate forms and polymorphisms. These analyses sug- gest ‘V-shaped’ or ‘nodulous’ sculpture as the plesiomorphic sculptural category for Unionida. The relatively low levels of homoplasy inferred for V-shaped, pseudo-radial and double-looped sculptures suggest that these types may comprise useful guides to relationships within Unionida. The high degree of homoplasy of W-shaped, pseudo-concentric, wrinkled and single-looped sculptures, on the other hand, renders these sculpture types less fit for such purposes.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12077

Project DOI: 10.7934/P784, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P784
This project containsMatrices
  • 76 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 228 Taxa
  • 77 Specimens
  • 2 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 60 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 485
Total media associated with cells: 132
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 2
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 11
Total character states with associated media: 10
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:2/0
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MorphoBank Project 784

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    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Andre Sartori
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/20/14
    228777612100485
    (464, 0, 21)
    13200
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 09/10/14
    00000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Alexandra Zieritz
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/30/12
    00000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1879' (188 Taxa)

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    [1] Neotrigonia margaritacea
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    02200003
    [2] Acuticosta chinensis
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    02200003
    [3] Cuneopsis celtiformis
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    [4] Cuneopsis pisciculus
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    [5] Nodularia douglasiae
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    [6] Nodularia schoedei
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    [7] Rhombuniopsis sp.
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    [8] Unio caffer
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    [9] Unio delphinus
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    [10] Unio gibbus
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    [11] Unio mancus
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    [12] Unio pictorum
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    [13] Unio ravoisieri
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    [14] Unio terminalis
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    [15] Unio tigridis
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    [16] Unio tumidiformis
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    [17] Unio tumidus
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    [18] Alasmidonta arcula
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    [19] Alasmidonta heterodon
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    [20] Alasmidonta marginata
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    [21] Alasmidonta undulata
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    [22] Alasmidonta varicosa
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    [23] Alasmidonta viridis
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    [24] Anodonta anatina
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    [25] Anodonta cygnea
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    [26] Anodonta kennerlyi
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    [27] Anodontoides ferussacianus
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    [28] Arcidens confragosus
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    [29] Cristaria plicata
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    [30] Lasmigona complanata
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    [31] Lasmigona compressa
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    [32] Lasmigona costata
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    [33] Lasmigona decorata
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    02200003
    [34] Lasmigona holstonia
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    [35] Lasmigona subviridis
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    [36] Pegias fabula
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    [37] Pseudanodonta complanata
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    [38] Pyganodon cataracta
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    [39] Pyganodon implicata
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    [40] Pyganodon grandis
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    [42] Simpsonaias ambigua
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    [43] Sinanodonta woodiana
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    [44] Strophitus undulatus
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    [45] Utterbackia imbecillis
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    [46] Megalonaias nervosa
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    [47] Quadrula cylindrica
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    [51] Cyclonaias tuberculata
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    [52] Elliptio arctata
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    [53] Elliptio complanata
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    [54] Elliptio dilatata
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    [56] Fusconaia flava
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    [67] Lampsilis fasciola
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    [68] Lampsilis ovata
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    [81] Venustaconcha ellipsiformis
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    [82] Villosa fabalis
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    [83] Villosa iris
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    [84] Villosa taeniata
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    [85] Gonidea angulata
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    [86] Leguminaia saulcyi
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    [87] Leguminaia wheatleyi
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    [88] Potomida littoralis
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    [89] Brazzaea sp.
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    [98] Coelatura stuhlmanni
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    [99] Grandidiera burtoni
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    [100] Nitia acuminata
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    [104] Pseudospatha tanganyicensis
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    [106] Elongaria orientalis
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    [107] Harmandia castelneaui
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    [111] Pronodularia japanensis
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    [112] Lamellidens marginalis
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    [124] Physunio superbus
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    [128] Protunio messageri
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    [129] Pseudodon inoscularis
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    [130] Pseudodon omiensis
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    [131] Pseudodon vondembuschianus
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    [132] Ptychorhynchus murinum
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    [133] Scabies crispata
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    [134] Scabies nucleus
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    [135] Trapezoideus exolescens
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    [136] Uniandra sp.
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    [137] Uniandra contradens
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    [138] Unionetta sp.
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    [139] Cumberlandia monodonta
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    [140] Margaritifera margaritifera
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    [145] Castalia ambigua
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    [147] Castalia psammoica
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    [149] Diplodon chilensis
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    [165] Velesunio angasi
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    [166] Mycetopoda siliquosa
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    [167] Anodontites elongata
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    [177] Pleiodon spekii
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    [179] Aspatharia divaricata
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    [180] Aspatharia pfeifferiana
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    [181] Aspatharia rugifera
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    [182] Chambardia bourguignati
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    [183] Chambardia nyassaensis
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    [184] Chambardia wahlbergi
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    [185] Alathyria pertexta
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    [187] Velesunio wilsonii
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    [188] Westralunio carteri
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