Project 785: N. Guil,A. Jørgensen,G. Giribet,R.-M. Kristensen. 2013. MOLECULES REVEAL EVOLUTIONARY SIGNAL IN ECHINISCUS (TARDIGRADA, HETEROTARDIGRADA, ECHINISCOIDEA) CUTICLE DESIGN. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 169 (2):389-407.
Specimen: Pseudechiniscus islandicus (unvouchered)

Abstract

Morphological characters to distinguish among Echiniscidae genus (body plates, buccopharyngeal apparatus), and among Echiniscus species (cuticle ornamentation, appendage shape and distribution) are well understood. However, conflict between appendages and molecular information has been detected previously in the blumi-canadensis complex. Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Echiniscidae, assessed monophyly of Echiniscus, and explored the value of cuticular ornamentation to cluster Echiniscus species. We also evaluated "conservative" genetic markers, due to extreme variability in COI and ITS2 sequences. To do so, we extracted DNA from single specimens for multiple Echiniscus species and related genera (Bryodelphax, Proechiniscus, Pseudechiniscus), and sequenced 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA fragments. Each sequenced specimen was photographed and data based for first time to make morphological evidence available for future inquiries. An updated phylogeny of Heterotardigrada, with emphasis in Echiniscidae, is provided, highlighting the conflict between molecular information and plate distribution among genera of Echiniscidae. Monophyly of Echiniscus was corroborated, with Testechiniscus inferred as its sister group. Parsimony network constructed with the 18S rRNA data revealed four groups based on cuticle design within Echiniscus. The use of 28S rRNA for ‘DNA taxonomy’ is discussed.


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Article DOI: 10.111

Project DOI: 10.7934/P785, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P785
This project contains
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  • Creation Date:
    06 September 2012
  • Publication Date:
    20 October 2016
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