Project 955: V. Fischer, R. M. Appleby, D. Naish, J. Liston, J. B. Riding, S. Brindley, P. Godefroit. 2013. A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs. Biology Letters. 9 (4):1-6.
Specimen: † Malawania anachronus (NHMUK/PV:R6682)

Abstract

Cretaceous ichthyosaurs have typically been considered a small, homogeneous assemblage sharing a common Late Jurassic ancestor. Their low diversity and disparity have been interpreted as indicative of a decline leading to their Cenomanian extinction. We describe the first post-Triassic ichthyosaur from the Middle East, Malawania anachronus gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of Iraq, and re-evaluate the evolutionary history of parvipelvian ichthyosaurs via phylogenetic and cladogenesis rate analyses. Malawania represents a basal grade in thunnosaurian evolution that arose during a major Late Triassic radiation event and was previously thought to have gone extinct during the Early Jurassic. Its pectoral morphology appears surprisingly archaic, retaining a forefin architecture similar to that of its Early Jurassic relatives. After the initial latest Triassic radiation of early thunnosaurians, two subsequent large radiations produced lineages with Cretaceous representatives, but the radiation events themselves are pre-Cretaceous. Cretaceous ichthyosaurs therefore include distantly related lineages, with contrasting evolutionary histories, and appear more diverse and disparate than previously supposed.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0021

Project DOI: 10.7934/P955, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P955
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 26 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 66 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1082
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 66
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 137
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:62/4
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MorphoBank Project 955

    Authors' Institutions

    • National Museums of Scotland, Royal Museum, Edinburgh

    • The University of Bristol

    • University of Glasgow

    • University of Li├Ęge

    • University of Southampton

    • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

    • Yunnan University

    • Univerisity College, Cardiff, UK

    • British Geological Survey

    • The Energy Agency, UK



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/23/13
    261166001082
    (1082, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/23/13
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Valentin Fischer
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/21/13
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2134' (26 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    member
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    [1] † Mikadocephalus gracilirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32343400003
    [2] † Hudsonelpidia brevirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39272700003
    [3] † Macgowania janiceps
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43232300003
    [4] † Leptonectes tenuirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13535300003
    [5] † Excalibosaurus costini
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25414100003
    [6] † Eurhinosaurus longirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6616000003
    [7] † Temnodontosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0676600003
    [8] † Suevoleviathan disinteger
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18484800003
    [9] † Ichthyosaurus communis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0706600003
    [10] † Hauffiopteryx typicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19474700003
    [11] † Stenopterygius quadriscissus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1676500003
    [12] † Chacaicosaurus cayi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    49171700003
    [13] † Ophthalmosaurus icenicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0686600003
    [14] † Ophthalmosaurus natans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    27393900003
    [15] † Mollesaurus perialus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54121200003
    [16] † Acamptonectes densus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    35323100003
    [17] † Brachypterygius extremus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    31353500003
    [18] † Arthropterygius chrisorum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44222200003
    [19] † Caypullisaurus bonapartei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24424200003
    [20] † Aegirosaurus leptospondylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22444400003
    [21] † Platypterygius australis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4626200003
    [22] † Platypterygius hercynicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16515000003
    [23] † Maiaspondylus lindoei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    41252500003
    [24] † Athabascasaurus bitumineus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43232300003
    [25] † Sveltonectes insolitus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12545400003
    [26] † Malawania anachronus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    48181800003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views24498
    Project overview3183
    Matrix views2139Matrix landing page (1914 views); Fischer Matrix (225 views);
    Media views4413Media search (3822 views); M287208 (591 views);
    Documents list1589
    Taxon list10086
    Specimen list2207
    Bibliography881




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project265
    Project downloads258
    Matrix downloads7Fischer Matrix (7 downloads);