Project 2083: C. Kolb,T. M. Scheyer,A. M. Lister,C. Azorit,J. de Vos,M. A. J. Schlingemann,G. Rössner,N. T. Monaghan,M. R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2015. Growth in fossil and recent deer and implications for body size and life history evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15 (19):1-15.
This project has 6 documents.

Please find here additional documents associated with this project. Occasionally MorphoBank receives matrices that are not formatted to parse to the database, these can also be found here, along with others and are presented 'as is' from the scientist.

6 Documents

Figure 2. Histological growth series of dwarf deer femora with skeletal reconstructions (modified from van der Geer et al. 2006) and specimens sampled (anterior view). (Downloaded 4 times )
Red bars indicate plane of sectioning. Candiacervus sp. II under crossed polarised light (xpl). a) Bone cortex of a perinatal specimen (PIMUZ A/V 5244) showing a mainly plexiform arrangement of vascular canals with a high amount of woven-fibred bone (violet areas; additional use of lambda compensator). Scale bar, 0.5 mm. b) Juvenile specimen (PIMUZ A/V 5219). Scale bars, 20 mm (femora all to scale), 1 mm (bone cortex). c) Adult specimen (PIMUZ A/V 5218). Note the increasing amount of parallel-fibred bone (bright areas) and the occurrence of lines of arrested growth (LAGs, white arrows) throughout ontogeny. Scale bar, 1 mm.
Figure 3. Cervid bone tissue and growth marks. (Downloaded 2 times )
Increasing femoral vascularisation (a-c) accompanied by increasing body size in a) juvenile Procervulus specimen BSPG 1937 II 23227, medial cortex (xpl; scale bar, 0.5 mm), b) adult Dama specimen ZIUK 9630, medial cortex (xpl; scale bar, 1 mm), and c) adult Megaloceros specimen NMING: F21306/13 under plane polarised light, anterior cortex (ppl, scale bar 1 mm). Note the low amount of vascularisation in the fibrolamellar bone of the juvenile Procervulus. Occurrence of LAGs indicated by black/white arrows and the outer circumferential layer by white brackets. Numbers indicate growth zones. Bone surfaces at the top, medullary cavities at bottom left. d) Tibia of adult Candiacervus sp. II (PIMUZ A/V 5222) showing Haversian bone in the inner part of the posterior cortex (bright area) and plexiform fibrolamellar bone in the middle part (lpl; scale bar, 1 mm). Occurrence of LAGs indicated by white arrows. Bone surface at top right, medullary cavity at bottom left. e) Radiating fibrolamellar bone in a metacarpal of adult Megaloceros giganteus (NMING:F22534/4, xpl; scale bar, 0.5 mm). f) First phalange of perinatal Candiacervus sp. II (PIMUZ A/V 5216) showing reticular vascularisation of mainly woven-fibred bone (xpl; scale bar, 0.2 mm).
Figure 4. Bone cortex of Megaloceros giganteus. (Downloaded 14 times )
Femur (NMING: F21306/13) in transverse (a) and longitudinal (b) section under crossed polarised light (bone surface top right). Note the low amount of woven fibred bone (dark areas) in the longitudinal section.
Figure 5. Cervid bone remodelling. (Downloaded 2 times )
a) Humerus of juvenile Candiacervus sp.II specimen PIMUZ A/V 5236 (xpl, lambda compensator, scale bar 0.5 mm). Note the scattered secondary osteons (SO). b) Ulna of adult Candiacervus sp. II specimen PIMUZ A/V 5215 (lpl, scale bar 1 mm) displaying plexiform fibrolamellar bone (centre) and dense Haversian bone (bottom). Note that the medullary cavity (bottom) has been subsequently closed by the deposition of endosteal lamellar bone which was in turn replaced by secondary Haversian bone. Anterior at the bottom. c) Dense Haversian bone in a metacarpal of adult Megaloceros giganteus specimen NMING: F22534/4 (xpl, scale bar 0.5 mm).
Figure 8. Cervid tooth histology. (Downloaded 2 times )
a) Senescent Megaloceros specimen PIMUZ A/V 2235. Left mandible in lateral view. Black bar indicates plane of sectioning. Scale bar, 50 mm. b) Tooth cementum of same specimen showing 19 rest lines (white arrows). Scale bar, 0.5 mm. e) Tooth cementum of the upper first molar of Candiacervus sp. II (PIMUZ A/V 5241) showing 18 rest lines (black arrows). CDJ = Cementum-dentine junction. Scale bar, 0.5 mm. Direction of cementum apposition to the bottom.
Figure S1. Femoral bone cortex of Dama and Procervulus. (Downloaded 14 times )
Typical plexiform bone tissue in a) juvenile Dama specimen PIMUZ A/V 5249 (xpl, scale bar 0.5 mm) and low amount of vascularisation in b) adult Procervulus specimen BSPG 1937 II 23226 (lpl, scale bar 0.2 mm). Brown and dark grey areas in the Procervulus specimen represent areas of recrystallisation. Bone surfaces at top right.