Project 2336: M. R. Borths, P. A. Holroyd, E. R. Seiffert. 2016. Hyainailourine and teratodontine cranial material from the late Eocene of Egypt and the application of parsimony and Bayesian methods to the phylogeny and biogeography of Hyaenodonta (Placentalia, Mammalia). PeerJ. 4:e2639.
Specimen: † Akhnatenavus nefertiticyon (DPC :17627)

Abstract

Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt. Akhnatenavus nefertiticyon sp. nov. has specialized, hypercarnivorous molars and an elongate cranial vault. In A. nefertiticyon the tallest, piercing cusp on M1–M2 is the paracone. Brychotherium ephalmos gen. et sp. nov. has more generalized molars that retain the metacone and complex talonids. In B. ephalmos the tallest, piercing cusp on M1–M2 is the metacone. We incorporate this new material into a series of phylogenetic analyses using a character-taxon matrix that includes novel dental, cranial, and postcranial characters, and samples extensively from the global record of the group. The phylogenetic analysis includes the first application of Bayesian methods to hyaenodont relationships. B. ephalmos is consistently placed within Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade with several generalist and hypercarnivorous forms, and Akhnatenavus is consistently recovered in Hyainailourinae as part of an Afro-Arabian radiation. The phylogenetic results suggest that hypercarnivory evolved independently three times within Hyaenodonta: in Teratodontinae, in Hyainailourinae, and in Hyaenodontinae. Teratodontines are consistently placed in a close relationship with Hyainailouridae (Hyainailourinae + Apterodontinae) to the exclusion of “proviverrines,” hyaenodontines, and several North American clades, and we propose that the superfamily Hyainailouroidea be used to describe this relationship. Using the topologies recovered from each phylogenetic method, we reconstructed the biogeographic history of Hyaenodonta using parsimony optimization (PO), likelihood optimization (LO), and Bayesian Binary Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to examine support for the Afro-Arabian origin of Hyaenodonta. Across all analyses, we found that Hyaenodonta most likely originated in Europe, rather than Afro-Arabia. The clade is estimated by tip-dating analysis to have undergone a rapid radiation in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene; a radiation currently not documented by fossil evidence. During the Paleocene, lineages are reconstructed as dispersing to Asia, Afro-Arabia, and North America. The place of origin of Hyainailouroidea is likely Afro-Arabia according to the Bayesian topologies but it is ambiguous using parsimony. All topologies support the constituent clades–Hyainailourinae, Apterodontinae, and Teratodontinae–as Afro-Arabian and tip-dating estimates that each clade is established in Afro-Arabia by the middle Eocene.


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Article DOI: DOI 10.7717/peerj.2639

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2336, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2336
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 7 Documents
  • 104 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 134 Characters


Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6211
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 134
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 338
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:115/19
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MorphoBank Project 2336

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    Matthew Borths
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 10/06/16
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    (6211, 0, 0)
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    Erik Seiffert
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24302' (78 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Eomaia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    39979500002
    [2] † Maelestes gobiensis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3010510400002
    [3] † Altacreodus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    50918400002
    [4] † Akhnatenavus leptognathus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    82525200002
    [5] † Akhnatenavus nefertiticyon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    42929200002
    [6] † Allopterodon torvidus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    46888800002
    [7] † Anasinopa leakeyi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    52828200002
    [8] † Apterodon gaudryi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    73616100002
    [9] † Apterodon langebadrae
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3210210200002
    [10] † Apterodon macrognathus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    313113100002
    [11] † Arfia gingerichi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    63717100002
    [12] † Arfia shoshoniensis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    43919100002
    [13] † Arfia opisthotoma
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    46888800002
    [14] † Boualitomus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    84505000002
    [15] † Boritia duffaudi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    81535300002
    [16] † Brychotherium ephalmos
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    49858500002
    [17] † Cynohyaenodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    2510910900002
    [18] † Dissopsalis pyroclasticus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    59757500002
    [19] † Eoproviverra
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    91434300002
    [20] † Eurotherium matthesi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1911511500002
    [21] † Eurotherium theriodis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3110310300002
    [22] † Furodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    68666600002
    [23] † Galecyon chronius
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    48868600002
    [24] † Galecyon mordax
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    68676600002
    [25] † Galecyon morloi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    75595900002
    [26] † Galecyon peregrinus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    89464500002
    [27] † Gazinocyon vulpeculus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    36989800002
    [28] † Glibzegdouia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    95393900002
    [29] † Hemipsalodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3210210200002
    [30] † Hyaenodon horridus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    213213200002
    [31] † Hyaenodon ergiliyndzo
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    2111311300002
    [32] † Hyaenodon minor
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1511911900002
    [33] † Hyaenodon neimongoliensis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    63727100002
    [34] † Hyainailouros sulzeri
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    42929200002
    [35] † Indohyaenodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    51838300002
    [36] † Isohyaenodon pilgrimi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    69656500002
    [37] † Kerberos
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    2111311300002
    [38] † Koholia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    114202000002
    [39] † Kyawdawia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    51838300002
    [40] † Lahimia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    102323200002
    [41] † Leakitherium hiwegi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    51838300002
    [42] † Lesmesodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    79555500002
    [43] † Limnocyon verus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1611811800002
    [44] † Leonhardtina gracilis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    40959400002
    [45] † Masrasector aegypticum
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    102323200002
    [46] † Masrasector ligabuei
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    104303000002
    [47] † Matthodon tritens
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    70646400002
    [48] † Megistotherium
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    57777700002
    [49] † Metapterodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    57777700002
    [50] † Metasinopa osborni
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    64707000002
    [51] † Morlodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    62727200002
    [52] † Orienspterodon dahkoensis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    62727200002
    [53] † Oxyaenoides bicuspidens
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    48868600002
    [54] † Oxyaenoides lindgreni
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    76585800002
    [55] † Paratritemnodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    55797900002
    [56] † Paroxyaena sp
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    51848300002
    [57] † Parvagula palulae
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    91434300002
    [58] † Preregidens langebadrae
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    89454500002
    [59] † Prolimnocyon atavus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3110310300002
    [60] † Prolimnocyon chowi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    89454500002
    [61] † Propterodon tongi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    82525200002
    [62] † Propterodon morrisi
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    54808000002
    [63] † Proviverra
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    40949400002
    [64] † Prototomus minimus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    66686800002
    [65] † Prototomus phobos
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    2810710600002
    [66] † Pterodon africanus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3010410400002
    [67] † Pterodon dasyuroides
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1911611500002
    [68] † Pterodon phiomensis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    80545400002
    [69] † Pyrocyon strenuus
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    50848400002
    [70] † Quasiapterodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    50848400002
    [71] † Quercytherium simplicidens
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    3410010000002
    [72] † Quercytherium tenebrosum
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    54818000002
    [73] † Sinopa grangeri
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    612912800002
    [74] † Sinopa jilinia
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    92424200002
    [75] † Teratodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    58767600002
    [76] † Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1911511500002
    [77] † Tinerhodon
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    90444400002
    [78] † Tritemnodon agilis
    Last Modified in 10/06/16
    1212212200002


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    Total project views12014
    Project overview1853
    Documents list808
    Media views1792Media search (1594 views); M406471 (198 views);
    Taxon list5374
    Specimen list846
    Matrix views925Matrix landing page (847 views); Morphological matrix utilized in "Hyainailourine and teratodontine cranial material from the late Eocene of Egypt and the application of parsimony and Bayesian methods to the phylogeny and biogeography of Hyaenodonta (Placentalia, Mammalia)" (78 views);
    Bibliography416




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    Total downloads from project89
    Project downloads74
    Document downloads3Standard Bayesian File (1 download); Character descriptions with citations (2 downloads);
    Matrix downloads12Morphological matrix utilized in "Hyainailourine and teratodontine cranial material from the late Eocene of Egypt and the application of parsimony and Bayesian methods to the phylogeny and biogeography of Hyaenodonta (Placentalia, Mammalia)" (12 downloads);