Project 3385: X. Ni, Q. Ji, W. Wu, Q. Shao, Y. Ji, C. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Ge, Z. Guo, J. Li, Q. Li, R. Grün, C. Stringer. 2021. Massive cranium from Harbin in northeastern China establishes a new Middle Pleistocene human lineage. The Innovation. 2 (3):100130.
Specimen: † Homo longi , 2021 (HBSM:2018-000018(A))
View: Anterior

Abstract

It has recently become clear that several human lineages coexisted with Homo sapiens during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene. Here, we report an archaic human fossil that throws new light on debates concerning the diversification of the Homo genus and the origin of H. sapiens. The fossil was recovered in Harbin city in northeastern China, with a minimum uranium-series age of 146 ka. This cranium is one of the best preserved Middle Pleistocene human fossils. Its massive size, with a large cranial capacity (~1,420 mL) falling in the range of modern humans, is combined with a mosaic of primitive and derived characters. It differs
from all the other named Homo species by presenting a combination of features, such as long and low cranial vault, a wide and low face, large and almost square orbits, gently curved but massively developed supraorbital torus, flat and low cheekbones with a shallow canine fossa, and a shallow palate with thick alveolar bone supporting very large molars. The excellent preservation of the Harbin cranium advances our understanding of several less-complete late Middle Pleistocene fossils from China, which have been interpreted as local evolutionary intermediates between the earlier species Homo erectus and later H. sapiens. Phylogenetic analyses based on parsimony criteria and Bayesian tip-dating suggest that the Harbin cranium and some other Middle Pleistocene human fossils from China, such as those from Dali and Xiahe, form a third East Asian lineage, which is a part of the sister group of the H. sapiens lineage. Our analyses of such morphologically distinctive archaic human lineages from Asia, Europe, and Africa suggest that the diversification of the Homo genus may have had a much deeper timescale than previously presumed. Sympatric isolation of small populations combined with stochastic long-distance dispersals is the best fitting biogeographical model for interpreting the evolution of the Homo genus.


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Article DOI: 10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100130

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3385, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3385
This project containsMatrices
  • 1360 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 2 Documents
  • 178 Taxa
  • 136 Specimens
  • 995 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 554.36M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 40580
Total media associated with cells: 12682
Total labels associated with cell media: 9617
Characters
Total characters: 1189
Total characters with associated media: 212
Total characters with media with labels: 34
Total character states: 1219
Total character states with associated media: 134
Total character states with media with labels:131
Total unordered/ordered characters:763/426
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MorphoBank Project 3385

    Authors' Institutions

    • Natural History Museum, London

    • Australian National University

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), CAS

    • Hebei GEO University

    • Nanjing Normal University

    • University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • Griffith University

    • China Geo-Environmental Monitoring Institute



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    comms
       
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    comms
        
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Xijun Ni
    Project Administrator
    125136136029749025349521522042
    (10055, 0, 11987)
    05791268296170
    Chris Stringer
    Full membership
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25860' (96 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Antecessor ate9-1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    5223230129342
    [2] † Antecessor atd6-15-atd6-69-atd6-96
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3021291901251171162
    [3] † Antecessor dental
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    40546440106002
    [4] † Homo sp. narmada
    Last Modified in 01/09/20
    3728830951161202
    [5] † Homo sp. eliye springs
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    35210630981431332
    [6] † Homo sp. ndutu
    Last Modified in 07/22/20
    34210420109103962
    [7] † Sapiens irhoud 1
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    328116601121301402
    [8] † Sapiens irhoud 2
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    3809050861071022
    [9] † Sapiens irhoud dentation and mandible
    Last Modified in 01/11/20
    345807001301192
    [10] † Sapiens florisbad
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    45065204065622
    [11] † Species omo ii
    Last Modified in 01/29/20
    3779230861061072
    [12] † Sapiens lh 18
    Last Modified in 01/29/20
    306119301301651352
    [13] † Sapiens skhul v
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    49212402942832312
    [14] † Sapiens skhul ix
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    43170505468722
    [15] † Sapiens qafzeh ix
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    28226703012522402
    [16] † Sapiens qafzeh 5_6_7_11_15_27
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    5520003002
    [17] † Sapiens mladec i
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    266127301631241252
    [18] † Sapiens mladec ii
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    41375506790832
    [19] † Sapiens mladec v
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    38392608096942
    [20] † Sapiens mladec vi
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    45264404060622
    [21] † Sapiens cro-magnon i
    Last Modified in 01/20/20
    194179501832091882
    [22] † Sapiens cro-magnon ii
    Last Modified in 01/20/20
    32810660122109992
    [23] † Sapiens cro-magnon iii
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    45351405147512
    [24] † Sapiens oase
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    113199602432261982
    [25] † Sapiens upper cave 101
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    53222602822662172
    [26] † Sapiens upper cave 103
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    265124401661571192
    [27] † Sapiens liujiang
    Last Modified in 01/25/20
    201143402111651412
    [28] † Neanderthalensis sh4
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    52754023002
    [29] † Neanderthalensis sh5
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    96201402583512022
    [30] † Neanderthalensis tabun c1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    60223502762512422
    [31] † Homo sp. tabun c2
    Last Modified in 07/30/20
    3768010100106702
    [32] † Neanderthalensis spy i
    Last Modified in 08/04/20
    375863094166842
    [33] † Neanderthalensis spy ii
    Last Modified in 08/04/20
    160179502162971782
    [34] † Neanderthalensis gibraltar1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    290124501421461282
    [35] † Neanderthalensis amud
    Last Modified in 01/27/20
    52210402953071992
    [36] † Neanderthalensis la chapelle aux saint
    Last Modified in 01/27/20
    220170401663141662
    [37] † Neanderthalensis la ferrassie 1
    Last Modified in 01/27/20
    273122401602461162
    [38] † Neanderthalensis shanidar 1
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    72208602752962012
    [39] † Neanderthalensis shanidar 2
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    5520003002
    [40] † Neanderthalensis shanidar 5
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    3489560112143912
    [41] † Neanderthalensis cesaire
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    156159302402311472
    [42] † Neanderthalensis saccopastore i
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    272120501632181172
    [43] † Neanderthalensis saccopastore ii
    Last Modified in 01/30/20
    3309330132120852
    [44] † Neanderthalensis type
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    44958304860652
    [45] † Homo sp. xiahe
    Last Modified in 08/26/20
    43465110567302
    [46] † Homo altaiensis
    Last Modified in 08/26/20
    54131013002
    [47] † Homo sp. dali
    Last Modified in 03/30/19
    2871271201431441492
    [48] † Homo sp. hualongdong
    Last Modified in 07/22/20
    2641601560135002
    [49] † Homo longi
    Last Modified in 07/04/21
    274129901531451592
    [50] † Homo sp. jinniushan
    Last Modified in 10/07/19
    202146802071441452
    [51] † Homo sp. maba
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    46143105142442
    [52] † Homo sp. xuchang
    Last Modified in 11/03/19
    406831506678702
    [53] † Heidelbergensis mauer 1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    36884001031011022
    [54] † Heidelbergensis arago xxi-xlvii
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    335819013980862
    [55] † Heidelbergensis arago xiii
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    38485008790902
    [56] † Heidelbergensis arago ii
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    42659007060602
    [57] † Heidelbergensis broken hill
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    234134701871431292
    [58] † Heidelbergensis petralona 1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    237132801861381172
    [59] † Heidelbergensis ceprano
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    38589608192802
    [60] † Heidelbergensis steinheim s11
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    264129901621281152
    [61] † Rhodesiensis saldanha
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    45056304956472
    [62] † Heidelbergensis bodo
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    3668612010385842
    [63] † Rhodesiensis ternifine 1
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    411650079109632
    [64] † Rhodesiensis ternifine 2
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    38178009685752
    [65] † Rhodesiensis ternifine 3
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    376820097118852
    [66] † Rhodesiensis ternifine 4
    Last Modified in 01/12/20
    52915101114142
    [67] † Erectus peking x
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    40182607383792
    [68] † Erectus peking xii
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    37390709293912
    [69] † Erectus peking xiii
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    47331505127262
    [70] † Erectus peking lii
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    50316103617162
    [71] † Erectus peking rc-1996
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    502111002962122192
    [72] † Erectus peking dental
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    5490006002
    [73] † Erectus nanjing1
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    40372808072702
    [74] † Erectus hexian
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    290128330139101912
    [75] † Erectus sambungmacan 1
    Last Modified in 05/04/20
    398915067102852
    [76] † Erectus sambungmacan 3
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    39392407098922
    [77] † Erectus sangiran 2
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    43947306950442
    [78] † Erectus sangiran17
    Last Modified in 01/10/20
    239136301821591472
    [79] † Erectus sangiran dental
    Last Modified in 07/25/20
    54200013002
    [80] † Erectus ngandong 7
    Last Modified in 07/27/20
    364963098107892
    [81] † Erectus ngandong 9
    Last Modified in 07/27/20
    46257303659532
    [82] † Erectus ngandong 12
    Last Modified in 08/02/20
    36594409692942
    [83] † Erectus dmanisi 211-2282
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    171170602142881512
    [84] † Erectus dmanisi 2280
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    361965099167902
    [85] † Erectus dmanisi 2700-2735
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    137187602312951712
    [86] † Erectus dmanisi 4500-2600
    Last Modified in 01/23/20
    109196502503151922
    [87] † Erectus sale
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    3489310115163982
    [88] † Homo sp. rabat
    Last Modified in 08/06/20
    401673908729252
    [89] † Homo sp. stw53
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    259129401671971212
    [90] † Erectus oh 9
    Last Modified in 01/27/20
    3639040102172872
    [91] † Erectus turkana
    Last Modified in 01/27/20
    67211402793642082
    [92] † Erectus er 3733
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    253133401692501282
    [93] † Erectus er 3883
    Last Modified in 01/26/20
    35210240101193982
    [94] † Habilis oh24
    Last Modified in 01/20/20
    255123401772471092
    [95] † Habilis oh7
    Last Modified in 01/19/20
    44239007448392
    [96] † Habilis er1805
    Last Modified in 01/20/20
    237155401632611252


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27617' (55 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Habilis oh7 OH24 ER1805
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1052031940335002
    [2] † Antecessor atd6-15-atd6-69-atd6-96
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2801571540200002
    [3] Narmada
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    42388880123002
    [4] Eliye springs
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    4061061050123002
    [5] Ndutu
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3931041040137002
    [6] Irhoud 1 2
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1382191990297002
    [7] Florisbad
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5206565049002
    [8] Omo ii
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    43192920111002
    [9] LH 18
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3571191190158002
    [10] Skhul v IX
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    902302210323002
    [11] Qafzeh ix
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    612262260347002
    [12] Mladec i II V VI
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3041571290201002
    [13] Cro magnon I II III
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2051991810248002
    [14] Oase 1 2
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1431991990292002
    [15] ZKD uc 101 103
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    782322210335002
    [16] Liujiang
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2711431430220002
    [17] SH4 5
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1272032010306002
    [18] Tabun 1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1102232190305002
    [19] Tabun 2
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    43880790117002
    [20] Spy i II
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2011951860247002
    [21] Gibraltar 1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3261241230185002
    [22] Amud
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    962102080330002
    [23] La chapelle aux Saint
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2541701690211002
    [24] La ferrassie 1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3111221220201002
    [25] Shanidar 1 5
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    912232080335002
    [26] Cesaire
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2881591590187002
    [27] Saccopastore i II
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2731391340227002
    [28] † Neanderthalensis type
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5195858057002
    [29] Xiahe
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5016565068002
    [30] Dali
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3221261250187002
    [31] Hualongdong
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3361601560142002
    [32] Harbin
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3121291280194002
    [33] Jinniushan
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2491461460239002
    [34] Maba
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5284343063002
    [35] Xuchang
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    4738383078002
    [36] Mauer 1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    43184840119002
    [37] Arago ii XIII XXI XLVII
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    1931761650276002
    [38] Broken hill
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2711341340229002
    [39] Petralona 1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2801321320222002
    [40] Ceprano
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    43989890106002
    [41] Steinheim s11
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3211291290184002
    [42] Saldanha
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5195656059002
    [43] Bodo
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    40586860143002
    [44] Ternifine 1 2 3 4
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    398114990137002
    [45] Peking x XII XIII LII RC
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    762212150343002
    [46] Nanjing1
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    45872720104002
    [47] Hexian
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3621281260146002
    [48] Sambungmacan 1 3
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    45410493087002
    [49] Sangiran 2 17
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    2721381340228002
    [50] Ngandong7 9 12
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    411116950128002
    [51] Dmanisi
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    552712260353002
    [52] Rabat
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    5106767057002
    [53] STW53
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    3041291290201002
    [54] OH 9
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    41790900127002
    [55] Turkana er3733 3883
    Last Modified in 08/09/21
    732342170344002


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M683759 (1 view); M684166 (1 view); M683788 (1 view); M683875 (1 view); M683721 (1 view); M684156 (1 view); M683878 (1 view); M683882 (1 view); M683867 (1 view); M684212 (1 view); M683248 (1 view); M683859 (1 view); M683951 (1 view); M684006 (1 view); M683884 (1 view); M683870 (1 view); M683880 (1 view); M683970 (1 view); M683959 (1 view); M683887 (1 view); M683376 (1 view); M692732 (1 view); M683839 (1 view); M692734 (1 view); M684229 (1 view); M685455 (1 view); M692730 (1 view); M684232 (1 view); M683922 (1 view); M683555 (1 view); M684064 (1 view); M683539 (1 view); M684206 (1 view); M683833 (1 view); M683756 (1 view); M684254 (1 view); M684223 (1 view); M684218 (1 view); M684211 (1 view); M684226 (1 view); M685457 (1 view); M683272 (1 view); M684094 (1 view); M684268 (1 view); M684056 (1 view); M681442 (1 view); M684219 (1 view); M692754 (1 view); M683313 (1 view); M683956 (1 view); M683955 (1 view); M684235 (1 view); M692733 (1 view); M684204 (1 view); M692758 (1 view); M692755 (1 view); M683982 (1 view); M692779 (1 view); M684240 (1 view); M684252 (1 view); M692763 (1 view); M684242 (1 view); M684227 (1 view); M685456 (1 view); M692762 (1 view); M684267 (1 view); M684273 (1 view); M692753 (1 view); M684149 (1 view); M678180 (1 view); M684201 (1 view); M692764 (1 view); M692760 (1 view); M692759 (1 view); M684221 (1 view); M683950 (1 view); M692752 (1 view); M684130 (1 view); M683708 (1 view); M684151 (1 view); M685458 (1 view); M684216 (1 view); M684238 (1 view); M684119 (1 view); M685462 (1 view); M692756 (1 view); M684057 (1 view); M684209 (1 view); M684217 (1 view); M683983 (1 view); M692731 (1 view); M684081 (1 view); M692738 (1 view); M684225 (1 view); M684255 (1 view); M685461 (1 view); M683877 (1 view); M684210 (1 view); M683198 (1 view); M692766 (1 view); M684220 (1 view); M684265 (1 view); M693197 (1 view); M683958 (1 view); M692771 (1 view); M683943 (1 view); M684175 (1 view); M684244 (1 view); M692916 (1 view); M678198 (1 view); M683734 (1 view); M692783 (1 view); 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M683821 (1 view); M683631 (1 view); M683647 (1 view); M683812 (1 view); M683201 (1 view); M683627 (1 view); M683240 (1 view); M683737 (1 view); M684101 (1 view); M683540 (1 view); M683862 (1 view); M683300 (1 view); M692924 (1 view); M683281 (1 view); M683287 (1 view); M683289 (1 view); M683834 (1 view); M683747 (1 view); M683262 (1 view); M693210 (1 view); M683301 (1 view); M683668 (1 view); M683841 (1 view); M683362 (1 view); M683886 (1 view); M683792 (1 view); M683696 (1 view); M684099 (1 view); M681435 (1 view); M683182 (1 view); M683552 (1 view); M683167 (1 view); M683698 (1 view); M684222 (1 view); M684139 (1 view); M683774 (1 view); M683651 (1 view); M684107 (1 view); M683720 (1 view); M683176 (1 view); M692769 (1 view); M683314 (1 view); M683700 (1 view); M683920 (1 view); M683622 (1 view); M683803 (1 view); M683831 (1 view); M678189 (1 view); M683119 (1 view); M683179 (1 view); M683933 (1 view); M683725 (1 view); M683710 (1 view); M683697 (1 view); M684092 (1 view); M678195 (1 view); M683286 (1 view); M683365 (1 view); M683200 (1 view); M683269 (1 view); M683592 (1 view); M683594 (1 view); M683883 (1 view); M683693 (1 view); M683192 (1 view); M693079 (1 view); M683155 (1 view); M681481 (1 view); M693194 (1 view); M683576 (1 view); M692736 (1 view); M683616 (1 view); M683550 (1 view); M684253 (1 view); M684100 (1 view); M683111 (1 view); M683285 (1 view); M684215 (1 view); M683161 (1 view); M683208 (1 view); M683307 (1 view); M684214 (1 view); M683325 (1 view); M683794 (1 view); M681490 (1 view); M684160 (1 view); M683718 (1 view); M683347 (1 view); M684185 (1 view); M683380 (1 view); M683311 (1 view); M684104 (1 view); M683369 (1 view); M683368 (1 view); M683291 (1 view); M684203 (1 view); M683190 (1 view); M681789 (1 view); M684087 (1 view); M683716 (1 view); M681480 (1 view); M683558 (1 view); M678204 (1 view); M683896 (1 view); M683302 (1 view); M684076 (1 view); M683751 (1 view); M683163 (1 view); M683260 (1 view); M681475 (1 view); M683919 (1 view); M683191 (1 view); M684118 (1 view); M683624 (1 view); M684181 (1 view);
    Specimen list32525
    Views for media list2258
    Bibliography2746
    Taxon list7208
    Documents list698




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project249
    Project downloads118
    Matrix downloads105MorphoHomo V1.0 (72 downloads); MorphoHomo V1.1 (33 downloads);
    Media downloads7M676567 (1 download); M683330 (1 download); M676569 (1 download); M813088 (2 downloads); M678119 (1 download); M683331 (1 download);
    Document downloads19Explanation of matrix files in this project (11 downloads); MorphoHomo V1.2 (7 downloads); Supplementary Materials for The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation of Placentals (1 download);