Project 3617: Bin Bai, , Jin Meng, Chi Zhang, Yan-Xin Gong, Yuan-Qing Wang. 2020. The origin of Rhinocerotoidea and phylogeny of Ceratomorpha (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Communications Biology. 509:1-16.
Specimen: † Yimengia magna
View: occlusal, buccal, and lingual views

Abstract

Rhinoceroses have been considered to have originated from tapiroids in the middle Eocene; however, the transition remains controversial, and the first unequivocal rhinocerotoids appeared about 4 Ma later than the earliest tapiroids of the Early Eocene. Here we describe 5 genera and 6 new species of rhinoceroses recently discovered from the early Eocene to the early middle Eocene deposits of the Erlian Basin of Inner Mongolia, China. These new materials represent the earliest members of rhinocerotoids, forstercooperiids, and/or hyrachyids, and bridge the evolutionary gap between the early Eocene ceratomorphs and middle Eocene rhinocerotoids. The phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian inference methods support their affinities with rhinocerotoids, and also illuminate the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Ceratomorpha, although some discrepancies are present between the two criteria. The nearly contemporary occurrence of various rhinocerotoids indicates that the divergence of different rhinocerotoid groups occurred no later than the late early Eocene, which is soon after the split between the rhinocerotoids and the tapiroids in the early early Eocene. However, the Bayesian tip-dating estimate suggests that the divergence of different ceratomorph groups occurred in the middle Paleocene.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01205-8
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 66 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 361 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2.31M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 16013
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 361
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1021
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:361/0
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MorphoBank Project 3617

    Authors' Institutions

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Bin Bai
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 10/22/20
    66113610016013
    (15087, 0, 926)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M27009' (65 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Sifrhippus sandrae
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    20015715407001
    [2] † Protorohippus venticolum
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    65282282014001
    [3] † Orientolophus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    325363501001
    [4] † Cardiolophus radinskyi
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    73274271017001
    [5] † Homogalax protapirinus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    61296286014001
    [6] † Chowliia laoshanensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    117232228016001
    [7] † Meridiolophus expansus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    25410410304001
    [8] † Isectolophus latidens
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    91269257013001
    [9] † Karagalax mamikhelensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    113244236012001
    [10] † Gandheralophus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    14920920705001
    [11] † Yimengia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    95253249017001
    [12] † Rhodopagus pygmaeus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    126221216019001
    [13] † Indolophus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    302545405001
    [14] † Heptodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    18338326017001
    [15] † Helaletes nanus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    89258255017001
    [16] † Desmatotherium intermedius
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    117233231013001
    [17] † Paracolodon fissus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    118231230013001
    [18] † Dilophodon minusculus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    176172172013001
    [19] † Selenaletes scopaeus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    315464204001
    [20] † Colodon occidentalis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    28315313020001
    [21] † Plesiocolopirus hancocki
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    109239237015001
    [22] † Hesperaletes borineyi
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    149205199013001
    [23] † Irenolophus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    46298297018001
    [24] † Telelophus medius
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    90248248023001
    [25] † Deperetella
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    107231230024001
    [26] † Minchenoletes erlianensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    25110510505001
    [27] † Schlosseria magister
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    79273272010001
    [28] † Lophialetes expeditus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    46308305010001
    [29] † Eoletes
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    8427226809001
    [30] † Ampholophus luensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    261919109001
    [31] † Kalakotia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    143205205013001
    [32] † Breviodon acares
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    127197197037001
    [33] † Protapirus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    45299297019001
    [34] Tapirus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    23315315023001
    [35] † Hyrachyus modestus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    19332329013001
    [36] † Ephyrachyus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    12523422808001
    [37] † Fouchia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    128220220013001
    [38] † Triplopus sp. nov.
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    25410110106001
    [39] † Triplopus cubitalus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    72277276013001
    [40] † Epitriplopus uintensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    10025625308001
    [41] † Triplopides rieli
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    127217217017001
    [42] † Prohyracodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    196154152013001
    [43] † Hyracodon nebraskensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    2233133009001
    [44] † Ardynia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    96244243022001
    [45] † Gobioceras
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    287676707001
    [46] † Pappaceras
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    3831831607001
    [47] † Fostercooperia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    49309302010001
    [48] † Proeggysodon qiui
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    24211311207001
    [49] † Eggysodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    117239234010001
    [50] † Juxia
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    2233533108001
    [51] † Urtinotherium
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    10724524509001
    [52] † Paraceratherium
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    41299299021001
    [53] † Rostriamynodon grangeri
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    177167167017001
    [54] † Caenolophus promissus
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    275838105001
    [55] † Amynodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    48291288025001
    [56] † Sharamynodon mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    67271268026001
    [57] † Cadurcodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    107215213041001
    [58] † Paramynodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    160169169032001
    [59] † Metamynodon
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    70273271020001
    [60] † Uintaceras radinskyi
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    8327227008001
    [61] † Teletaceras
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    7428228106001
    [62] † Trigonias
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    23330326012001
    [63] † Subhyracodon occidentalis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    40306303018001
    [64] † Menoceras arikarense
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    38300300023001
    [65] Rhinoceros unicornis
    Last Modified in 10/28/20
    13327325023001


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    Project overview37
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    Specimen list27
    Taxon list166
    Bibliography11
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    Total downloads from project13
    Matrix downloads5 (4 downloads); Ceratomorpha Phylogeny (1 download);
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