Project 536: K. L. Krysko, J. P. Burgess, M. R. Rochford, C. R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K. M. Enge, L. A. Somma, J. L. Stabile, D. C. Smith, J. A. Wasilewski, G. N. Kieckhefer III, M. C. Granatosky, S. V. Nielsen. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa. (3028):1–64.
Specimen: Hypselotriton orientalis (UF:157946)

Abstract

We follow a biological invasion model that consists of a series of five consecutive obligatory stages, concluding with stages 4a and 5 (i.e., widespread = invasive species). The State of Florida is infamous for having the most introduced (stages 2–5) amphibians and reptiles in the United States. However, there is disagreement regarding their numbers as well as identification in some cases. Unverified claims of species being introduced (stage 2), or established (stages 3–5) without evidence (i.e., a voucher specimen or photograph) are prevalent in the literature. It is crucial to provide data on all known non-indigenous herpetofaunal species via vouchers to help keep numbers of species consistent, accurately identify species, document when and where a particular species is found, and identify the invasion stage and pathway of each species. Herein, we use vouchers to confirm interceptions and introductions of all known non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida through 2010, provide a list of these species along with their invasion pathways and ecological status (i.e., invasion stage), and provide a species account for each newly confirmed species. We include species that were previously reported in the literature but lacking an associated voucher and provide greater details on previously reported species and those species whose invasion stage has been upgraded to established (stages 3–5). Based on field work since 1992, along with examination of museum records and literature, we confirm three intercepted and 137 introduced amphibian and reptile taxa in Florida. Of these, 56 are established (i.e., reproducing; stages 3–5), including three frogs, four turtles, one crocodilian, 43 lizards, and five snakes. Of 149 total independent introduction pathways (i.e., including a different pathway one time only for each taxon) for the 140 total non-indigenous taxa above, two (1.34%) are related to the biological control pathway, four (2.68%) to the zoo pathway, 18 (12.08%) to the cargo pathway, and 125 (83.89%) to the pet trade pathway.
Florida now ranks as having the largest number of established non-indigenous herpetofaunal species in the entire world. Despite current state laws that make it illegal to release any non-indigenous animal in Florida without first obtaining a permit from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, enforcement is difficult, and we are unaware of any person ever being prosecuted for the establishment of a non-indigenous animal species in Florida. Because current state and federal laws have not been effective in curtailing the ever-increasing number of illegal introductions, laws need to be modified and made enforceable. At the very least, those responsible for introductions should be held accountable for compensation to clean up (= extermination) of those species for which they are responsible. Lastly, we strongly support the creation of an Early Detection and Rapid Response program to quickly identify newly found introduced species for eradication attempts. This paper will also serve as a baseline to document future introductions.


Read the article »

Project DOI: 10.7934/P536, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P536
This project contains
  • 84 Media
  • 1 Document
  • 84 Taxa
  • 84 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 228 MB

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 536


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media
    Kenneth Krysko
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 01/08/12
    848484
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/17/12
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/19/12
    000
    Louis Somma
    Full membership
    Last logged in 07/05/11
    000


    Project has no matrices defined.



    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views87488
    Project overview3000
    Media views35491Media search (3681 views); M88668 (430 views); M88500 (390 views); M88630 (375 views); M88443 (357 views); M88626 (380 views); M88447 (401 views); M88496 (390 views); M88499 (421 views); M88666 (351 views); M88649 (339 views); M88444 (400 views); M88573 (362 views); M88571 (401 views); M88639 (343 views); M88648 (380 views); M88653 (414 views); M88650 (378 views); M88676 (397 views); M88638 (378 views); M88656 (380 views); M88662 (403 views); M88574 (417 views); M88664 (406 views); M88667 (345 views); M88641 (411 views); M88647 (363 views); M88640 (350 views); M88658 (379 views); M88568 (390 views); M88559 (360 views); M88655 (332 views); M88637 (375 views); M88663 (415 views); M88644 (339 views); M88643 (336 views); M88669 (435 views); M88570 (401 views); M88629 (406 views); M88449 (367 views); M88659 (337 views); M88575 (370 views); M88450 (417 views); M88634 (369 views); M88660 (376 views); M88545 (374 views); M88671 (375 views); M88670 (390 views); M88625 (398 views); M88635 (375 views); M88651 (357 views); M88576 (382 views); M88448 (364 views); M88642 (330 views); M88646 (367 views); M88674 (341 views); M88652 (357 views); M88633 (417 views); M88632 (382 views); M88657 (388 views); M88673 (360 views); M88546 (386 views); M88645 (506 views); M88445 (356 views); M88636 (374 views); M88654 (418 views); M88677 (365 views); M88661 (372 views); M88624 (401 views); M88441 (391 views); M88628 (357 views); M88544 (315 views); M101333 (361 views); M88675 (366 views); M88627 (389 views); M88497 (360 views); M88672 (354 views); M88498 (369 views); M88446 (365 views); M88569 (412 views); M88665 (326 views); M88572 (408 views); M88020 (394 views); M88442 (366 views); M88631 (376 views);
    Specimen list35024
    Taxon list11991
    Documents list1252
    Bibliography730




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project168
    Media downloads1M88500 (1 download);
    Document downloads1Copyright Statement for Media (1 download);
    Project downloads166