Project 970: X. Ni, D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn, K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature. 498 (7452):60-64.
Specimen: † Archicebus achilles (IVPP/V:18168)

Abstract

Reconstructing the earliest phases of primate evolution has been impeded by gaps in the fossil record, so that disagreements persist regarding the palaeobiology and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest primates. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete and partly articulated skeleton of a primitive haplorhine primate from the early Eocene of China, about 55 million years ago, the oldest fossil primate of this quality ever recovered. Coupled with detailed morphological examination using propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography, our phylogenetic analysis based on total available evidence indicates that this fossil is the most basal known member of the tarsiiform clade. In addition to providing further support for an early dichotomy between the strepsirrhine and haplorhine clades, this new primate further constrains the age of divergence between tarsiiforms and anthropoids. It also strengthens the hypothesis that the earliest primates were probably diurnal, arboreal and primarily insectivorous mammals the size of modern pygmy mouse lemurs.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P970, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P970
This project containsMatrices
  • 11 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 157 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 1844 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 82 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 117939
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 1844
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 4219
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:19/1825
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MorphoBank Project 970

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    Xijun Ni
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 03/19/14
    1571101844038600117939
    (111870, 0, 6069)
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2155' (157 Taxa)

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    [1] Echinosorex gymnura
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16616271622056002
    [2] Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16715961595082002
    [3] † Aegyptopithecus zeuxis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1074714707063002
    [4] Alouatta seniculus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28015301519045002
    [5] † Altiatlasius koulchii
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    167616516206002
    [6] Aotus azarae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6617411736042002
    [7] † Apidium phiomense
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1132679676036002
    [8] † Arsinoea kallimos
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1611223223010002
    [9] Ateles belzebuth
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21016111586048002
    [10] † Bahinia pondaungensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1431379378035002
    [11] † Biretia fayumensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1493333333018002
    [12] † Biretia megalopsis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1527306304013002
    [13] Brachyteles arachnoides
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44913581355040002
    [14] † Branisella boliviana
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1406412411027002
    [15] † Bugtipithecus inexpectans
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1600235234010002
    [16] Cacajao calvus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44213541349053002
    [17] Callicebus donacophilus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22615981576042002
    [18] Callimico goeldii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43513831364045002
    [19] Callithrix jacchus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4417301721079002
    [20] † Catopithecus browni
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1174611610060002
    [21] Cebuella pygmaea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    811980961072002
    [22] † Cebupithecia sarmientoi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1281529529034002
    [23] Cebus apella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38214301424038002
    [24] Cercocebus agilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17615991591077002
    [25] Cercopithecus neglectus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2317441734087002
    [26] Chiropotes chiropotes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39014191402052002
    [27] † Dolichocebus gaimanensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1269543543032002
    [28] † Eosimias centennicus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1405413411028002
    [29] † Eosimias sinensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1371450446027002
    [30] † Epipliopithecus vindobonensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1119666664061002
    [31] † Homunculus patagonicus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1472354354018002
    [32] Hoolock hoolock
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3917461734071002
    [33] † Laccopithecus robustus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1307473473064002
    [34] Lagothrix lagotricha
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25715621543044002
    [35] Leontopithecus rosalia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    41913701356069002
    [36] † Myanmarpithecus yarshensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    157725925809002
    [37] † Oligopithecus rogeri
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1433357356055002
    [38] † Oligopithecus savagei
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1600222222022002
    [39] † Parapithecus fraasi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1600215215029002
    [40] † Parapithecus grangeri
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1369436435040002
    [41] † Phenacopithecus spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1509328320015002
    [42] † Phileosimias kamali
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    158925025005002
    [43] Pithecia pithecia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13316751665046002
    [44] † Pondaungia cotteri
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1397435435012002
    [45] Presbytis melalophos
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21515651558071002
    [46] † Proteopithecus sylviae
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1239577576029002
    [47] † Saadanius hijazensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1609208208027002
    [48] Saguinus oedipus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25515381524065002
    [49] Saimiri sciureus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7217351723049002
    [50] † Serapia eocaena
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    164519319306002
    [51] † Siamopithecus eocaenus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1420391389035002
    [52] † Victoriapithecus macinnesi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1216570564064002
    [53] † Carpocristes oriens
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1459366366019002
    [54] † Carpolestes simpsoni
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1047702702095002
    [55] † Chronolestes simul
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1356466465023002
    [56] Cynocephalus volans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6173617350103002
    [57] † Ellesmene eureka
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    142741041007002
    [58] † Elphidotarsius florencae
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1390438435019002
    [59] † Elpidophorus elegans
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1398433428018002
    [60] † Eudaemonema cuspidata
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1422411409013002
    [61] Galeopterus variegatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17015841582092002
    [62] † Ignacius graybullianus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    10356956920117002
    [63] † Microsyops latidens
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1198601595051002
    [64] † Mixodectes pungens
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1339447441064002
    [65] † Nannodectes gidleyi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1312494485047002
    [66] † Navajovius kohlhaasae
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1414388388042002
    [67] † Niptomomys doreenae
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1448365362034002
    [68] † Palaechthon alticuspis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1386442433025002
    [69] † Palenochtha minor
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1538286286020002
    [70] † Paromomys maturus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1366447445033002
    [71] † Phenacolemur jepseni
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    11146316290101002
    [72] † Plagiomene multicuspis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    138845144709002
    [73] † Planetetherium mirabile
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1471364360013002
    [74] † Plesiadapis tricuspidens
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1014758753077002
    [75] † Plesiolestes problematicus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1409422414021002
    [76] † Pronothodectes matthewi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1386430425033002
    [77] † Purgatorius spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1477347347020002
    [78] † Saxonella crepaturas
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1537292292015002
    [79] † Tinimomys graybulliensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1208571570066002
    [80] † Worlandia inusitata
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1394445440010002
    [81] † Adapis parisiensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1026800793025002
    [82] † Afradapis longicristatus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1351440433060002
    [83] † Aframonius dieides
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1404412412028002
    [84] † Algeripithecus minutus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1457356356031002
    [85] † Asiadapis cambayensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1439393386019002
    [86] Avahi laniger
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24415101502098002
    [87] † Azibius trerki
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1466357356022002
    [88] † Caenopithecus lemuroides
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1411404400033002
    [89] † Cantius frugivorus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1297540530017002
    [90] Cheirogaleus major
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22415651561059002
    [91] Daubentonia madagascariensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    221138013800243002
    [92] † Djebelemur martinezi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1569249249026002
    [93] † Donrussellia gallica
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1578255253013002
    [94] † Donrussellia provincialis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1500329328016002
    [95] Galago senegalensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19616061601047002
    [96] † Guangxilemur spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    155328528506002
    [97] Hapalemur griseus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21915781573052002
    [98] † Hoanghonius stehlini
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1558274274012002
    [99] Lemur catta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1917801775050002
    [100] Lepilemur leucopus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    20915531549086002
    [101] † Leptadapis magnus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1104731721019002
    [102] Loris tardigradus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5417381736054002
    [103] † Mahgarita stevensi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1354458458032002
    [104] † Marcgodinotius indicus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1465369366013002
    [105] † Microadapis sciureus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    155128628607002
    [106] Microcebus murinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    20215961583059002
    [107] † Notharctus tenebrosus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    874959936034002
    [108] † Nycticeboides simpsoni
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1294500500050002
    [109] Nycticebus coucang
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4717401734063002
    [110] Perodicticus potto
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19416291608042002
    [111] † Pronycticebus spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1287532532025002
    [112] † Propithecus verreauxi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    4717211705092002
    [113] † Rencunius spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1612221220012002
    [114] † Sinoadapis shihuibaensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1369446445030002
    [115] † Sivaladapis nagrii
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1422398398024002
    [116] † Smilodectes gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    882928923039002
    [117] † Absarokius abbotti
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1340481474030002
    [118] † Absarokius noctivagus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1412397387045002
    [119] † Altanius orlovi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1438383383023002
    [120] † Anaptomorphus spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1564257255025002
    [121] † Arapahovius gazini
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1348476468028002
    [122] † Araphovius advena
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1608225224012002
    [123] † Archicebus achilles
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1122695692030002
    [124] † Aycrossia lovei
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1433364363048002
    [125] † Chumashius balchi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1568262262014002
    [126] † Dyseolemur pacificus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1359455452033002
    [127] † Hemiacodon gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1213615604027002
    [128] † Loveina zephyri
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1502322322020002
    [129] † Macrotarsius jepseni
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1366454448030002
    [130] † Macrotarsius montanus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    164319219209002
    [131] † Macrotarsius siegerti
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    155628328107002
    [132] † Microchoerus erinaceus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1293506503048002
    [133] † Necrolemur spp.
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1160643637047002
    [134] † Omomys carteri
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1100709709035002
    [135] † Ourayia uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    158225725705002
    [136] † Pseudoloris parvulus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1343452452049002
    [137] † Rooneyia viejaensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1505309306033002
    [138] † Shoshonius cooperi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1172661639033002
    [139] † Steinius vespertinus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1493343332019002
    [140] † Strigorhysis bridgerensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1445341340059002
    [141] † Tarkadectes montanensis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    165618418404002
    [142] † Tarka stylifera
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1476338336032002
    [143] † Tarkops mckennai
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    165318218209002
    [144] Tarsius syrichta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    417931791049002
    [145] † Teilhardina americana
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1406416416022002
    [146] † Teilhardina asiatica
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1343473471030002
    [147] † Teilhardina belgica
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1402425419023002
    [148] † Teilhardina brandti
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1431399394019002
    [149] † Teilhardina magnoliana
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1536297290018002
    [150] † Tetonius homunculus
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1182630625037002
    [151] † Tetonoides pearcei
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    162721020908002
    [152] † Uintanius ameghini
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1453355355036002
    [153] † Vectipithex raabi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1331454454059002
    [154] † Washakius insignis
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    1375452442027002
    [155] † Xanthorhysis tabrumi
    Last Modified in 12/21/13
    164019719707002
    [156] Ptilocercus lowii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17616311628040002
    [157] Tupaia glis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    217951790052002


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